Based on an experimental program, including both individual components and piping system, CEA has evaluated the margins coming from present design procedures and has developed sound analytical methods that allow for a modelization, in the linear or nonlinear domain. For industrial purposes, simplified methods are proposed that are much less time-consuming than nonlinear time-history calculations, but much more accurate than linear methods. They are devoted to a better evaluation of the global behavior (internal moments in the piping system or reactions in supports, displacements, rotations).

ASME, Edition July 1992, “Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,” Section III, Division 1, Subsection NB.
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Equivalent Linearization Techniques
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