The results of penetration and perforation tests carried out on composite sandwich panels with GRP skins and PVC foam cores using hemispherical-ended and conical-nosed indenters/projectiles under quasi-static, drop-weight, and ballistic impact conditions, with impact velocities up to 305 m/s, are described. Load-displacement characteristics under quasi-static loading are presented and the ballistic limits as well as perforation energies are determined. A classification of the sandwich panel responses based on the panel thickness-to-projectile diameter ratio is deduced. General empirical formulas that predict the dynamic perforation energies for FRP laminates and composite sandwich panels loaded by hemispherical-ended projectiles are derived. The empirical equations correlate well with available experimental data. It is shown that, to a first approximation, the formulas obtained for hemispherical-ended projectiles are also applicable to conical-nosed projectiles.
Penetration and Perforation of Composite Sandwich Panels by Hemispherical and Conical Projectiles
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Reddy, T. Y., Wen, H. M., Reid, S. R., and Soden, P. D. (May 1, 1998). "Penetration and Perforation of Composite Sandwich Panels by Hemispherical and Conical Projectiles." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. May 1998; 120(2): 186–194. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2842239
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