The Bree diagram has been incorporated in the ASME B&PV Code in the elevated temperature Code Case N47 as a design approach for limiting strain accumulation in cylinders subjected to cyclic thermal loadings under sustained primary stress. Since the Bree diagram is based upon uniaxial-stress model, it is pertinent to examine the influence of biaxial stresses on strain growth and cyclic stress-strain hysteresis response. The results of inelastic analyses presented in this paper showed that ratcheting and hysteresis behavior may also occur in the axial direction in addition to the hoop direction. Results of almost 100 load cases were presented to clarify the influence of biaxial membrane and thermal bending stresses on the structural behavior. A design approach for the assessment of this type of problem was suggested which utilizes these results.

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