In 1988, ASME B31.3 added Appendix X containing requirements for Metallic Bellows Expansion Joints into the Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping Code. These have been revised and improved in subsequent addenda to the Code. This paper describes some of the salient features of this Appendix, as well as the revisions and the background behind them.

1.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Section VIII, Div. 1.
2.
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Pressure Vessels, Alternate Rules, Section VIII, Div 2.
3.
ASME B31.3, Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
4.
Becht IV, C., 1980, “Root Bulge of Bellows,” DOE Research and Development Report, ESG-DOE-13320, Rockwell International, May 30.
5.
Becht IV, C., and Skopp, G., 1981a, “Stress Analysis of Bellows,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints, ASME PVP-Vol. 51.
6.
Becht IV, C., and Skopp, G., 1981b, Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints, “Root Bulge of Bellows,” ASME PVP-Vol. 51.
7.
Becht IV, C., Horton, P., and Skopp, G., 1981c, “Verification of Theoretical Plastic Ratchet Boundaries for Bellows,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints, ASME PVP-Vol. 51.
8.
Becht IV, C., 1985, “Predicting Bellows Response by Numerical and Theoretical Methods,” A Decade of Progress in Pressure Vessels and Piping Technology—1985.
9.
Becht IV, C., 1989a, “Fatigue and Elevated Temperature Design of Bellows,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints—1989, ASME PVP-Vol. 168.
10.
Becht IV, C., 1989b, “Considerations in Bellows Thrust Forces and Proof Testing,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints—1989, ASME PVP-Vol. 168.
11.
Broyles, R., 1989, “Bellows Instability,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints—1989, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
12.
Broyles, R., 1994, “EJMA Design Equations,” Developments in a Progressing Technology—1994, ASME PVP-Vol. 279.
13.
EJMA Inc., 1980, Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturer’s Association, 5th Edition, Tarrytown, NY.
14.
EJMA Inc., 1993, Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturer’s Association, 6th Edition, Tarrytown, NY.
15.
Kobatake, K., et al., 1986, “Simplified Fatigue Life Evaluation Method of Bellows Expansion Joints At Elevated Temperature,” Fatigue and Fracture Assessment by Analysis and Testing, ASME PVP-Vol. 103.
16.
Langer, B. F., 1961, “Design of Pressure Vessels for Low Cycle Fatigue,” ASME Paper No. 61-WA-18.
17.
Takezono, S., 1971, “Fatigue Strength of Expansion Joints of Pressure Vessels,” Bulletin of the JSME, Vol 14, No. 76.
18.
Tsukimori, K., et al., 1989b, “Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Life Prediction of Bellows,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints—1989, ASME PVP-Vol. 168.
19.
Yamamoto, S., et al., 1986, “Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Testing of Bellows at Elevated Temperature,” Fatigue and Fracture Assessment by Analysis and Testing, ASME PVP-Vol. 103.
20.
Yamashita, T., et al., 1989, “Ratchetting Mechanism of Bellows and Evaluation Method,” Metallic Bellows and Expansion Joints—1989. ASME PVP-Vol. 168.
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