A simple design procedure, based on 114 finite element analyses, was derived to predict the stress intensification factor for 90-deg curved pipe with end constraints composed of tangents of any length terminated by rigid flanges and no internal pressure loads. The results of this design procedure were then compared to stress intensification factors obtained from additional finite element analyses and experimental work. Stress intensification factors calculated using the design equations in the Power Piping Code (ANSI/ASME B31.1-1986) were also compared to all the finite element and experimental work. It was found that this design procedure more accurately predicts the stress intensification factors than the Power Piping Code.

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