For the reliable operation of bellows under cyclic loadings at high temperatures, a rational evaluation method of life of bellows would be needed. Authors investigated simplified analysis methods for fatigue and creep-fatigue life prediction of U-shaped bellows considering inelasticity as well as various geometrical nonuniformity such as thickness and shape of convolutions. A conservative evaluation method of the strain range is developed, introducing three strain range amplification factors for nominal elastic strain range. Creep and relaxation behaviors of bellows are studied. Consequently, a new evaluation method of creep damage fractions is proposed which depends upon the relation between primary and secondary stresses. Fatigue and creep-fatigue tests are conducted and the validity of the present methods is discussed.

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