Two-phase cross-flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers, such as condensers, reboilers and nuclear steam generators. An understanding of damping and of flow-induced vibration excitation mechanisms is necessary to avoid problems due to excessive tube vibration. Accordingly, we have undertaken an extensive program to study the vibration behavior of tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross-flow. In this paper we present the results of experiments on four tube bundle configurations; namely, normal triangular of pitch over diameter ratio, p/d, of 1.32 and 1.47, and parallel triangular and normal square of p/d of 1.47. The bundles were subjected to air-water mixtures to simulate realistic mass fluxes and vapor qualities corresponding to void fractions from 5 to 99 percent. Hydrodynamic mass and damping are discussed in Part 1 of this series of three papers. We found that hydrodynamic mass is roughly related to the homogeneous mixture density. The damping characteristics of all tube bundles are generally similar. Damping is maximum between 40 and 80 percent void fraction where the damping ratio reaches about 4 percent. The effect of mass flux is generally weak. Design guidelines are proposed for hydrodynamic mass and for damping.

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