A simple equation is proposed which will enable a designer to estimate the onset of buckling in internally pressurized steel torispherical end closures. The equation applies to both crown and segment ends and spun ones. Apart from a factor which accounts for strain hardening, the same equation applies to both carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel torispheres. The proposed equation for the allowable internal pressure was checked against all known experimental buckling results and a minimum factor of safety of 1.5 was found. The equation was also checked against a number of full-scale vessels, some of which had failed in service. Once again, the equation was found to be satisfactory.

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