Two finite element procedures are described for predicting the dynamic response of general 3-D fluid-filled elastic piping systems. The first approach, a low-frequency procedure, models each straight pipe or elbow as a sequence of beams. The contained fluid is modeled as a separate coincident sequence of axial members (rods) which are tied to the pipe in the lateral direction. The model includes the pipe hoop strain correction to the fluid sound speed and the flexibility factor correction to the elbow flexibility. The second modeling approach, an intermediate frequency procedure, follows generally the original Zienkiewicz-Newton scheme for coupled fluid-structure problems except that the velocity potential is used as the fundamental fluid unknown to symmetrize the coefficient matrices. From comparisons of the beam model predictions to both experimental data and the 3-D model, the beam model is validated for frequencies up to about two-thirds of the lowest fluid-filled lobar pipe mode. Accurate elbow flexibility factors are seen to be important for effective beam modeling of piping systems.

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