The different methods of combining responses for individual modes and directions for response spectrum analysis of nuclear piping systems are evaluated. For the purpose of the study, dynamic responses of 20 typical piping systems using nine different combination methods are systematically compared. The study established the relative conservatism in design achieved by each method and the probability that a particular combination method will produce a more conservative estimate of seismic response than obtained using one of the methods accepted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

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