The description of monotonic and cyclic behavior of material is possible by generalizing the internal stress concept by means of a set of internal variables. In this paper the classical isotropic and kinematic hardening rules are briefly discussed, using present plastic strain tensor and cumulated plastic strain as hardening variables. Some additional internal variables are then proposed, giving rise to many possibilities. What is called the “nonlinear kinematic hardening” leads to a natural description of the nonlinear plastic behavior under cyclic loading, but is connected to other concepts such as the Mroz’s model, limited to only two surfaces, and similarities with other approaches are pointed out in the context of a generalization of this rule to viscoplasticity.

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