Abstract

Aquaculture has been the world’s fastest-growing food producing method and grown to become the second-largest export industry in Norway during the past 40 years. Usually, the high-value fish such as Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar) is raised in a multi-cage fish farm, where the flow interactions between fish cages exist. In this study, the interactions between fish cages are implemented into the numerical program, FhSim, to investigate its influences on the responses of a multi-cage fish farm. Tensions in anchor lines, drag force, and cultivation volume of each cage in a full-scale 4 × 2 multi-cage fish farms under different flow directions are analyzed numerically. The discrepancies of the responses based on three cases, i.e., (i) without any wake effects, (ii) with only cage-to-cage wake effect, and (iii) with all the wake effects, are compared and discussed. The results indicate that neglecting the wake effects will overestimate the total drag force of the eight cages up to 128% and underestimate the total cultivation volume of the eight cages as much as 42%. This study can provide suggestions on how to consider the wake effects during the design of the multiple-cage system.

References

References
1.
Cardia
,
F.
, and
Lovatelli
,
A.
,
2015
,
Aquaculture Operations in Floating HDPE Cages: A Field Handbook. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper, (593)
.
2.
Føre
,
M.
,
Frank
,
K.
,
Norton
,
T.
,
Svendsen
,
E.
,
Alfredsen
,
J. A.
,
Dempster
,
T.
,
Eguiraun
,
H.
,
Watson
,
W.
,
Stahl
,
A.
,
Sunde
,
L. M.
, and
Schellewald
,
C.
,
2018
, “
Precision Fish Farming: A New Framework to Improve Production in Aquaculture
,”
Biosystems Eng.
,
173
, pp.
176
193
. 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.10.014
3.
Løland
,
G.
,
1991
, “
Current Forces on and Flow Through Fish Farms
,”
PhD thesis
,
NTNU
,
Trondheim, Norway
.
4.
Endresen
,
P. C.
,
Føre
,
M.
,
Fredheim
,
A.
,
Kristiansen
,
D.
, and
Enerhaug
,
B.
,
2013
, “
Numerical Modeling of Wake Effect on Aquaculture Nets
,”
Proceedings of the ASME 2013 32nd International Conference on Ocean
,
Nantes, France
,
June 9–14
.
5.
Blevins
,
R. D.
,
2001
,
Flow-Induced Vibration
,
Krieger Publishing Company
,
Malabar, United States
.
6.
Bi
,
C. W.
, and
Xu
,
T. J.
,
2018
, “
Numerical Study on the Flow Field Around a Fish Farm in Tidal Current
,”
Turkish J. Fisheries Aquatic Sci.
,
18
(
57
), pp.
705
716
.
7.
Zhao
,
Y.-P.
,
Bi
,
C.-W.
,
Dong
,
G.-H.
,
Gui
,
F.-K.
,
Cui
,
Y.
,
Guan
,
C.-T.
, and
Xu
,
T.-J.
,
2013
, “
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Around Fishing Plane Nets Using the Porous Media Model
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
62
, pp.
25
37
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2013.01.009
8.
Zhao
,
Y.-P.
,
Bi
,
C.-W.
,
Dong
,
G.-H.
,
Gui
,
F.-K.
,
Cui
,
Y.
, and
Xu
,
T.-J.
,
2013
, “
Numerical Simulation of the Flow Field Inside and Around Gravity Cages
,”
Aquacultural Eng.
,
52
, pp.
1
13
. 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2012.06.001
9.
Bi
,
C.-W.
,
Zhao
,
Y.-P.
,
Dong
,
G.-H.
,
Xu
,
T.-J.
, and
Gui
,
F.-K.
,
2013
, “
Experimental Investigation of the Reduction in Flow Velocity Downstream From a Fishing Net
,”
Aquacultural Eng.
,
57
, pp.
71
81
. 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2013.08.002
10.
Turner
,
A. A.
,
Jeans
,
T. L.
, and
Reid
,
G. K.
,
2016
, “
Experimental Investigation of Fish Farm Hydrodynamics on 1:15 Scale Model Square Aquaculture Cages
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
138
(
6
), p.
061201
. 10.1115/1.4034176
11.
Gansel
,
L. C.
,
McClimans
,
T. A.
, and
Myrhaug
,
D.
,
2012
, “
The Effects of Fish Cages on Ambient Currents
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
134
(
1
), p.
011303
. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4003696
12.
Zhao
,
Y.-P.
,
Bi
,
C.-W.
,
Chen
,
C.-P.
,
Li
,
Y.-C.
, and
Dong
,
G.-H.
,
2015
, “
Experimental Study on Flow Velocity and Mooring Loads for Multiple Net Cages in Steady Current
,”
Aquacultural Eng.
,
67
, pp.
24
31
. 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2015.05.005
13.
Reite
,
K. J.
,
Føre
,
M.
,
Aarsæther
,
K. G.
,
Jensen
,
J.
,
Rundtop
,
P.
,
Kyllingstad
,
L.
,
Endresen
,
P. C.
,
Kristiansen
,
D.
,
Johansen
,
V.
, and
Fredheim
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Fhsim—Time Domain Simulation of Marine Systems
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering—OMAE
,
San Francisco, CA
,
June 8–13
.
14.
Endresen
,
P. C.
,
Birkevold
,
J.
,
Føre
,
M.
,
Fredheim
,
A.
,
Kristiansen
,
D.
, and
lader
,
P.
,
2014
, “
Simulation and Validation of a Numerical Model of a Full Aquaculture Net-Cage System
,”
Proceedings of the ASME International Conference on Ocean
,
San Francisco, USA
,
June 8–13
.
15.
Priour
,
D.
,
1999
, “
Calculation of Net Shapes by the Finite Element Method With Triangular Elements
,”
Commun. Numer. Methods Eng.
,
15
(
10
), pp.
775
763
. 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0887(199910)15:10<755::AID-CNM299>3.0.CO;2-M
16.
Cheng
,
H.
,
Aarsæther
,
K. G.
,
Li
,
L.
, and
Ong
,
M. C.
,
2020
, “
Numerical Study of a Single-Point Mooring Gravity Fish Cage With Different Deformation-Suppression Methods
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
142
(
4
), p.
041301
. 10.1115/1.4046115
17.
Cheng
,
H.
,
Li
,
L.
,
Aarsæther
,
K. G.
, and
Ong
,
M. C.
,
2020
, “
Typical Hydrodynamic Models for Aquaculture Nets: A Comparative Study Under Pure Current Conditions
,”
Aquacultural Eng.
,
90
, p.
102070
. 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2020.102070
18.
Kristiansen
,
T.
, and
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
2012
, “
Modelling of Current Loads on Aquaculture Net Cages
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
34
, pp.
218
235
. 10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2012.04.001
19.
Fredriksson
,
D. W.
,
Decew
,
J.
,
Lader
,
P.
,
Volent
,
Z.
,
Jensen
, and
Willumsen
,
F. V.
,
2014
, “
A Finite Element Modeling Technique for an Aquaculture Net With Laboratory Measurement Comparisons
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
83
, pp.
99
110
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2014.03.005
20.
Huang
,
C. C.
,
Tang
,
H. J.
, and
Liu
,
J. Y.
,
2006
, “
Dynamical Analysis of Net Cage Structures for Marine Aquaculture: Numerical Simulation and Model Testing
,”
Aquacultural Eng.
,
35
(
3
), pp.
258
270
. 10.1016/j.aquaeng.2006.03.003
21.
Xu
,
Z.
, and
Qin
,
H.
,
2020
, “
Fluid-Structure Interactions of Cage Based Aquaculture: From Structures to Organisms
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
217
, p.
107961
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2020.107961
You do not currently have access to this content.