Abstract

Sinkage and trim, which often occur to ships moving in shallow water, do not only have an effect on the ship–ship hydrodynamic interaction forces but also increase the risk of grounding. Potential flow-based online calculation of ship–ship hydrodynamic interaction forces without accounting for dynamic sinkage and trim is able to capture the hydrodynamic interaction effects with fair accuracy; however, there are still discrepancies in many cases, especially in the case of shallow water. An algorithm based on the potential theory has been devised for real-time simulation of the hydrodynamic interaction between two ships in shallow water accounting for sinkage and trim. The shallow water condition is modeled using the mirror image method. The sinkage and trim are solved iteratively based on the principle of hydrodynamic balance, where a mesh trimming procedure is carried out when the waterline is changed. Simulations are performed with and without accounting for the sinkage and trim, and comparison with experimental results shows a fair agreement.

References

References
1.
Dand
,
I. W.
,
1981
, “
Some Measurements in Interaction Between Ship Models Passing on Parallel Courses
,”
National Maritime Institute
Report 108
.
2.
Vantorre
,
M.
,
Verzhbitskaya
,
E.
, and
Laforce
,
E.
,
2002
, “
Model Test Based Formulations of Ship-Ship Interaction Forces
,”
Ship Technol. Res.
,
49
(
3
), pp.
124
141
.
3.
Lataire
,
E.
, and
Vantorre
,
M.
,
2009
, “
Captive Model Testing for Ship to Ship Operations
,”
Proceedings of the International Conference on Marine Simulation and Ship Maneuverability
,
Panama City, Panama
,
Aug. 17–20
, pp.
M-9-1
M-9-10
.
4.
Yeung
,
R. W.
,
1978
, “
On the Interactions of Slender Ships in Shallow Water
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
85
(
1
), pp.
143
159
. 10.1017/S0022112078000567
5.
Söding
,
H.
, and
Conrad
,
F.
,
2005
, “
Analysis of Overtaking Manoeuvres in a Narrow Waterway
,”
Ship Technol. Res.
,
52
(
4
), pp.
189
193
. 10.1179/str.2005.52.4.005
6.
Xu
,
H. F.
, and
Zou
,
Z. J.
,
2016
, “
Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces on a Moored Ship Induced by a Passing Ship in Shallow Water Using a High-Order Panel Method
,”
J. Shanghai Jiaotong Univ.
,
21
(
2
), pp.
129
135
. 10.1007/s12204-016-1703-6
7.
Fonfach
,
J. M. A.
,
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Numerical Study of Ship-to-Ship Interaction Forces on the Basis of Various Flow Models
,”
2nd International Conference on Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow and Confined Water
,
Trondheim, Norway
,
May 18–20
, pp.
137
146
.
8.
Zou
,
L.
, and
Larsson
,
L.
,
2013
, “
Numerical Predictions of Ship-to-Ship Interaction in Shallow Water
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
72
, pp.
386
402
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2013.06.015
9.
Von Graefe
,
A.
,
Shigunov
,
V.
, and
el Moctar
,
O.
,
2015
, “
Rankine Source Method for Ship-Ship Interaction Problems
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
137
(
2
), p.
021601
. 10.1115/1.4029316
10.
Yuan
,
Z. M.
,
He
,
S.
,
Kellett
,
P.
,
Incecik
,
A.
,
Turan
,
O.
, and
Boulougouris
,
E.
,
2015
, “
Ship-to-Ship Interaction During Overtaking Operation in Shallow Water
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
59
(
3
), pp.
172
187
. 10.5957/JOSR.59.3.150004
11.
Hess
,
J. L.
, and
Smith
,
A. M. O.
,
1964
, “
Calculation of Non-Lifting Potential Flow About Arbitrary Three-Dimensional Bodies
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
8
(
4
), pp.
22
44
. 10.21236/ad0755480
12.
Hess
,
J. L.
, and
Smith
,
A. M. O.
,
1967
, “
Calculation of Potential Flow About Arbitrary Bodies
,”
Prog. Aerosp. Sci.
,
8
, pp.
1
138
. 10.1016/0376-0421(67)90003-6
13.
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2008
, “
Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Interaction Forces in Close-Proximity Manoeuvring
,”
27th Annual International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering (OMAE 2008)
,
Estoril, Portugal
,
June 15–19
, pp.
839
848
.
14.
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Simulation of Close-Proximity Maneuvers Using an Online 3d Potential Flow Method
,”
Proceedings of International Conference on Marine Simulation and Ship Manoeuvrability (MARSIM 2009)
,
Panama City, Panama
,
Aug., 17–20
, pp.
M-9-1
M-9-10
.
15.
Sutulo
,
S.
,
Guedes Soares
,
C.
, and
Otzen
,
J. F.
,
2012
, “
Validation of Potential-Flow Estimation of Interaction Forces Acting upon Ship Hulls in Parallel Motion
,”
Ship Technol. Res.
,
56
(
3
), pp.
129
145
. 10.5957/JOSR.56.3.100031
16.
Zhou
,
X.-Q.
,
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2014
, “
Computation of Ship-to-Ship Interaction Forces by a 3d Potential Flow Panel Method in Finite Water Depth
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
136
(
4
), pp.
285
294
. 10.1115/OMAE2010-20497
17.
Zhou
,
X.-Q.
,
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2016
, “
A Paving Algorithm for Dynamic Generation of Quadrilateral Meshes for Online Numerical Simulations of Ship Manoeuvring in Shallow Water
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
122
, pp.
10
21
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2016.06.008
18.
Zhou
,
X.-Q.
,
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2015
, “
Simulation of Hydrodynamic Interaction Forces Acting on a Ship Sailing Across a Submerged Bank or an Approach Channel
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
103
, pp.
103
111
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2015.04.067
19.
Liu
,
Y.
,
Zou
,
L.
, and
Zou
,
Z. J.
,
2017
, “
Computational Fluid Dynamics Prediction of Hydrodynamic Forces on a Manoeuvring Ship Including Effects of Dynamic Sinkage and Trim
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. M
,
12
(
1
), pp.
334
353
. 10.1177/1475090217734685
20.
Lima
,
D. B. V.
,
Sutulo
,
S.
, and
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
2016
, “Study of Ship-to-Ship Interaction in Shallow Water With Account for Squat Phenomenon,”
Maritime Technology and Engineering 3
,
G.
Soares C.
, and
T. A.
Santos
, eds.,
Taylor & Francis Group
,
London, UK
, pp.
333
338
.
21.
Gourlay
,
T.
,
2009
, “
Sinkage and Trim of Two Ships Passing Each Other on Parallel Courses
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
36
(
14
), pp.
1119
1127
. 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2009.06.003
22.
Yao
,
J. X.
, and
Zou
,
Z. J.
,
2010
, “
Calculation of Ship Squat in Restricted Waterways by Using a 3D Panel Method
,”
J. Hydrodyn. Ser. B
,
22
(
5
), pp.
489
494
. 10.1016/S1001-6058(09)60241-9
You do not currently have access to this content.