This paper expounds the process of successfully establishing a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to accurately reproduce experimental results of three-dimensional (3D) gap resonance between two fixed ship-shaped boxes. The ship-shaped boxes with round bilges were arranged in a side-by-side configuration to represent a floating liquefied natural gas offloading scenario and were subjected to NewWave-type transient wave groups. We employ the open-source CFD package openfoam to develop the numerical model. Three-dimensional gap resonance differs from its two-dimensional (2D) counterpart in allowing spatial structure along the gap and hence multiple modes can easily be excited in the gap by waves of moderate spectral bandwidth. In terms of numerical setup and computational cost, a 3D simulation is much more challenging than a 2D simulation and requires careful selection of relevant parameters. In this respect, the mesh topology and size, domain size and boundary conditions are systematically optimized. It is shown that to accurately reproduce the experimental results in this case, the cell size must be adequate to resolve both the undisturbed incident waves and near-wall boundary layer. By using a linear iterative method, the NewWave-type transient wave group used in the experiment is accurately recreated in the numerical wave tank (NWT). Numerical results including time series of gap responses, resonant amplitudes and frequencies, and mode shapes show excellent agreement with experimental data.

References

References
1.
Molin
,
B.
,
2001
, “
On the Piston and Sloshing Modes in Moonpools
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
430
, pp.
27
50
.
2.
Molin
,
B.
,
Remy
,
F.
,
Kimmoun
,
O.
, and
Stassen
,
Y.
,
2002
, “
Experimental Study of the Wave Propagation and Decay in a Channel Through a Rigid Ice-Sheet
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
24
(
5
), pp.
247
260
.
3.
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
Rognebakke
,
O. F.
, and
Timokha
,
A. N.
,
2007
, “
Two-Dimensional Resonant Piston-Like Sloshing in a Moonpool
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
575
, pp.
359
397
.
4.
Buchner
,
B.
,
Van Dijk
,
A.
, and
De Wilde
,
J.
,
2001
, “
Numerical Multiple-Body Simulations of Side-by-Side Mooring to an FPSO
,”
Eleventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
(
ISOPE
), Stavanger, Norway, June 17–22, pp.
343
353
.https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-01-053
5.
Pauw
,
W. H.
,
Huijsmans
,
R. H.
, and
Voogt
,
A.
,
2007
, “
Advances in the Hydrodynamics of Side-by-Side Moored Vessels
,”
ASME
Paper No. OMAE2007-29374.
6.
Huijsmans
,
R. H. M.
,
Pinkster
,
J. A.
, and
De Wilde
,
J. J.
,
2001
, “
Diffraction and Radiation of Waves Around Side-by-Side Moored Vessels
,” Eleventh International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
(ISOPE)
, Stavanger, Norway, June 17–22, pp.
406
412
.https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-01-061
7.
Newman
,
J. N.
,
2004
, “
Progress in Wave Load Computations on Offshore Structures
,”
23rd International Conference Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
, Vancouver, Canada, June 20–25.
8.
Lee
,
C. H.
, and
Newman
,
J. N.
,
2005
, “
Computation of Wave Effects Using the Panel Method
,”
Numerical Models in Fluid-Structure Interaction
,
MIT Press
,
Cambridge, MA
, pp.
211
251
.
9.
Chen
,
X. B.
,
2005
, “
Hydrodynamic Analysis for Offshore LNG Terminals
,”
Second International Workshop on Applied Offshore Hydrodynamics
, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Apr. 14–15.
10.
Kristiansen
,
T.
, and
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
2008
, “
Application of a Vortex Tracking Method to the Piston-Like Behaviour in a Semi-Entrained Vertical Gap
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
1
16
.
11.
Kristiansen
,
T.
, and
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
2012
, “
Gap Resonance Analyzed by a New Domain-Decomposition Method Combining Potential and Viscous Flow Draft
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
34
, pp.
198
208
.
12.
Lu
,
L.
,
Teng
,
B.
,
Cheng
,
L.
, and
Li
,
Y.
,
2008
, “
Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamic Resonance in a Narrow Gap Between Twin Bodies Subject to Water Waves
,”
18th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 6–11, Paper No.
ISOPE-I-08-344
.https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-08-344
13.
Moradi
,
N.
,
Zhou
,
T.
, and
Cheng
,
L.
,
2015
, “
Effect of Inlet Configuration on Wave Resonance in the Narrow Gap of Two Fixed Bodies in Close Proximity
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
103
, pp.
88
102
.
14.
Zhao
,
W.
,
Wolgamot
,
H. A.
,
Taylor
,
P. H.
, and
Eatock Taylor
,
R.
,
2017
, “
Gap Resonance and Higher Harmonics Driven by Focused Transient Wave Groups
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
812
, pp.
905
939
.
15.
Tromans
,
P. S.
,
Anaturk
,
A. R.
, and
Hagemeijer
,
P.
,
1991
, “
A New Model for the Kinematics of Large Ocean Waves-Application as a Design Wave
,”
First ISOPE
, Vol.
3
, Edinburgh, UK, Aug. 11–16, Paper No.
ISOPE-I-91-154
.https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-91-154
16.
Zhao
,
W.
,
Taylor
,
P. H.
,
Wolgamot
,
H. A. E.
, and
Taylor
,
R.
,
2018
, “
Linear Viscous Damping in Random Wave Excited Gap Resonance at Laboratory Scale—Newwave Analysis and Reciprocity
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
,
80
, pp.
59
76
.
17.
Sumer
,
B. M.
,
2006
,
Hydrodynamics Around Cylindrical Structures
,
World Scientific
,
Singapore
.
18.
Jensen
,
B. L.
,
Sumer
,
B. M.
, and
Fredsøe
,
J.
,
1989
, “
Turbulent Oscillatory Boundary Layers at High Reynolds Numbers
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
206
(
1
), pp.
265
297
.
19.
Jacobsen
,
N. G.
,
Fuhrman
,
D. R.
, and
Fredsøe
,
J.
,
2012
, “
A Wave Generation Toolbox for the Open-Source CFD Library: OpenFoam®
,”
Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids
,
70
(
9
), pp.
1073
1088
.
20.
Berberović
,
E.
,
van Hinsberg
,
N. P.
,
Jakirlić
,
S.
,
Roisman
,
I. V.
, and
Tropea
,
C.
,
2009
, “
Drop Impact Onto a Liquid Layer of Finite Thickness: Dynamics of the Cavity Evolution
,”
Phys. Rev. E
,
79
(
3
), pp.
1
15
.
21.
Greenshields
,
C. J.
,
2015
,
Openfoam User Guide
,
CFD Direct Ltd
.,
Caversham, UK
.
22.
Maddock
,
I.
,
Harby
,
A.
,
Kemp
,
P.
, and
Wood
,
P. J.
,
2013
,
Ecohydraulics: An Integrated Approach
,
Wiley
,
Chichester, UK
.
23.
Lamb
,
H.
,
1932
,
Hydrodynamics
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge, UK
.
24.
Wang
,
H.
,
Draper
,
S.
,
Zhao
,
W.
,
Wolgamot
,
H. A.
, and
Cheng
,
L.
,
2016
, “
Two-Dimensional Numerical Study of Resonant Free Surface Motion in the Gap Between Two Fixed Vessels
,”
20th Australasian Fluid Mechanics Conference
, Perth, Australia, Oct. 11–14.
25.
Saitoh
,
T.
,
Miao
,
G. P.
, and
Ishida
,
H.
,
2006
, “
Theoretical Analysis on Appearance Condition of Fluid Resonance in a Narrow Gap Between Two Modules of Very Large Floating Structure
,”
Third Asia-Pacific Workshop on Marine Hydrodynamics
, Shanghai, China, June 27–28, pp.
170
175
.
26.
Chaplin
,
J. R.
,
1996
, “
On Frequency-Focusing Unidirectional Waves
,”
Int. J. Offshore Polar Eng.
,
6
(
2
), pp.
131
137
.https://www.onepetro.org/journal-paper/ISOPE-96-06-2-131
27.
Schmittner
,
C.
,
Kosleck
,
S.
, and
Hennig
,
J.
,
2009
, “
A Phase-Amplitude Iteration Scheme for the Optimization of Deterministic Wave Sequences
,”
ASME Paper No. OMAE2009-80131
.
28.
Fernández
,
H.
,
Sriram
,
V.
,
Schimmels
,
S.
, and
Oumeraci
,
H.
,
2014
, “
Extreme Wave Generation Using Self Correcting Method—Revisited
,”
Coastal Eng.
,
93
, pp.
15
31
.
29.
Stagonas
,
D.
,
Buldakov
,
E.
, and
Simons
,
R.
,
2014
, “
Focusing Unidirectional Wave Groups on Finite Water Depth With and Without Currents
,”
34th International Coastal Engineering Conference
, Seoul, South Korea, June 15–20, p.
31
.
30.
Vyzikas
,
T.
,
Stagonas
,
D.
,
Buldakov
,
E.
, and
Greaves
,
D.
,
2015
, “
Efficient Numerical Modelling of Focused Wave Groups for Freak Wave Generation
,”
25th International Ocean and Polar Engineering Conference
, Kona, HI, June 21–26, Paper No.
ISOPE-I-15-693
.https://www.onepetro.org/conference-paper/ISOPE-I-15-693
31.
Fitzgerald
,
C. J.
,
Taylor
,
P. H.
,
Eatock Taylor
,
R.
,
Grice
,
J.
, and
Zang
,
J.
,
2014
, “
Phase Manipulation and the Harmonic Components of Ringing Forces on a Surface-Piercing Column
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London A
,
470
(
2168
), p.
20130847
.
32.
Gibson
,
R. S.
, and
Swan
,
C.
,
2007
, “
The Evolution of Large Ocean Waves: The Role of Local and Rapid Spectral Changes
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London A
,
463
(
2077
), pp.
21
48
.
33.
Ma
,
Y.
,
Dong
,
G.
,
Liu
,
S.
,
Zang
,
J.
,
Li
,
J.
, and
Sun
,
Y.
,
2009
, “
Laboratory Study of Unidirectional Focusing Waves in Intermediate Depth Water
,”
J. Eng. Mech.
,
136
(
1
), pp.
78
90
.
34.
Adcock
,
T. A.
, and
Taylor
,
P. H.
,
2016
, “
Non-Linear Evolution of Uni-Directional Focussed Wave-Groups on a Deep Water: A Comparison of Models
,”
Appl. Ocean Res.
,
59
, pp.
147
152
.
35.
Roache
,
P. J.
,
1997
, “
Quantification of Uncertainty in Computational Fluid Dynamics
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
,
29
(
1
), pp.
123
160
.
You do not currently have access to this content.