Presented is the performance analysis of annular blowout preventer (BOP) reciprocating elastomer hydraulic seals operating in subsea environments. The method is based on a systems-level model that combines the effects of friction, material mechanical properties of the seal, installation compression, subsea hydrostatic pressure, and control system dynamics into one model. The model is calibrated using data from tests conducted on the surface and then validated on subsea operational data. Through model simulations, it will be shown that insufficient installation squeeze of the seal in combination with low elasticity seal material results in cases where the seal does not leak at the surface but show substantial internal leakage in subsea conditions. Leakage is also observed under dynamic operation when the walls of the seal groove do not energize the seal. The proposed model-based analysis method in conjunction with surface level testing offers a new paradigm in evaluating reciprocating seal subsea performance a priori of subsea operation thereby avoiding costly downtimes and subsea failures.

References

References
1.
Totten
,
G. E.
, and
Negri
,
V. J. D.
,
2012
,
Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology
, Vol.
966
,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
, Chap. 2.
2.
Flitney
,
R.
,
2014
,
Seals and Sealing Handbook
,
Elsevier
,
Waltham, MA
, Chap. 2.
3.
Chandrasekaran
,
V. C.
,
2010
,
Rubber Seals for Fluid and Hydraulic Systems
,
Elsevier
,
Oxford, UK
, Chap. 1.
4.
Nikas
,
G. K.
,
2010
, “
Eighty Years of Research on Hydraulic Reciprocating Seals: Review of Tribological Studies and Related Topics since the 1930s
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J
,
224
(
1
), pp.
1
23
.
5.
Merritt
,
H. E.
,
1967
,
Hydraulic Control Systems
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
6.
Bai
,
Y.
, and
Bai
,
Q.
,
2012
,
Subsea Engineering Handbook
,
Elsevier
,
Burlington, MA
.
7.
Kanters
,
A. F. C.
,
1990
, “
On the Calculation of Leakage and Friction of Reciprocating Elastomeric Seals
,”
Ph.D. thesis
, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
8.
Medri
,
G.
, and
Strorzl
,
A.
,
1984
, “
Mechanical Analysis of Elastomeric Seals by Numerical Methods
,”
Ind. Eng. Chem. Prod. Res. Dev
,
23
(
4
), pp.
596
600
.
9.
Salant
,
R. F.
,
Maser
,
N.
, and
Yang
,
B.
,
2007
, “
Numerical Model of a Reciprocating Hydraulic Rod Seal
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
129
(
1
), p.
91
.
10.
Yang
,
B.
, and
Salant
,
R. F.
,
2008
, “
Numerical Model of a Tandem Reciprocating Hydraulic Rod Seal
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
130
(
3
), pp.
32201
32207
.
11.
Salant
,
R. F.
,
Yang
,
B.
, and
Thatte
,
A.
,
2010
, “
Simulation of Hydraulic Seals
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J
,
224
(
9
), pp.
865
876
.
12.
Öngün
,
Y.
,
André
,
M.
,
Bartel
,
D.
, and
Deters
,
L.
,
2008
, “
An Axisymmetric Hydrodynamic Interface Element for Finite-Element Computations of Mixed Lubrication in Rubber Seals
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part J
,
222
(
3
), pp.
471
481
.
13.
Stupkiewicz
,
S.
, and
Marciniszyn
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication and Finite Configuration Changes in Reciprocating Elastomeric Seals
,”
Tribol. Int.
,
42
(
5
), pp.
615
627
.
14.
Thatte
,
A.
, and
Salant
,
R. F.
,
2010
, “
Visco-Elastohydrodynamic Model of a Hydraulic Rod Seal During Transient Operation
,”
ASME J. Tribol.
,
132
(
4
), p.
041501
.
15.
Bullock
,
A.
,
2010
,
Fundamental Concepts Associated With Hydraulic Seals for High Bandwidth Actuation
,
University of Bath
,
Bath, UK
.
16.
Ylinen
,
A.
,
Marjamäki
,
H.
, and
Mäkinen
,
J.
,
2014
, “
A Hydraulic Cylinder Model for Multibody Simulations
,”
Comput. Struct.
,
138
, pp.
62
72
.
17.
Tran
,
X. B.
,
Hafizah
,
N.
, and
Yanada
,
H.
,
2011
, “
Modeling of Dynamic Friction Behaviors of Hydraulic Cylinders
,”
Mechatronics
,
22
(
1
), pp.
65
75
.
18.
An
,
L.
, and
Sepehri
,
N.
,
2005
, “
Hydraulic Actuator Leakage Fault Detection Using Extended Kalman Filter
,”
Int. J. Fluid Power
,
6
(
1
), pp.
41
51
.
19.
An
,
L.
, and
Sepehri
,
N.
,
2008
, “
Leakage Fault Detection in Hydraulic Actuators Subject to Unknown External Loading
,”
Int. J. Fluid Power
,
9
(
2
), pp.
15
25
.
20.
Li
,
B.
, and
Zhang
,
S. M.
,
2011
, “
Contact Pressure Research of Drill Pipe and Packer of Rotating Blowout Preventer
,”
Appl. Mech. Mater
,
121–126
, pp.
3200
3204
.
21.
Karnopp
,
D.
,
1985
, “
Computer Simulation of Stick-Slip Friction in Mechanical Dynamic Systems
,”
ASME J. Dyn. Syst. Meas. Control
,
107
(
1
), pp.
100
103
.
22.
Garimella
,
P.
, and
Yao
,
B.
,
2005
, “
Model Based Fault Detection of an Electro-Hydraulic Cylinder
,”
American Control Conference
(
ACC
), Portland, OR, June 8–10, pp.
484
489
.
23.
Tan
,
H. Z.
, and
Sepehri
,
N.
,
2002
, “
Parametric Fault Diagnosis for Electrohydraulic Cylinder Drive Units
,”
IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron
,
49
(
1
), pp.
96
106
.
24.
Stivers
,
G. S.
,
1972
, “
Electro-Hydraulic Control Systems for Subsea Applications
,”
SPE European Spring Meeting
, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, May 16–18, SPE Paper No.
SPE-3762-MS
.
25.
Mutlu
,
M.
,
Franchek
,
M. A.
,
Gutierrez
,
J.
, and
Pereira
,
L. R.
,
2016
, “
System Level Performance and Reliability Investigation of Hydraulic Circuits Using Physics Based Models
,”
ASME
Paper No. DSCC2016-9717
26.
Mathworks
,
2016
, “Matlab and Simscape Toolbox Release 2014a,” The MathWorls, Inc., Natick, MA.
27.
Siemens PLM,
2014
, “Star CCM+ v9.06 User Guide,”
CD-Adapco
, Melville, NY.
28.
Parker Hannifin,
2007
,
Parker O-Ring Handbook
,
Parker Hannifin Corporation
,
Cleveland, OH
.
You do not currently have access to this content.