Offshore structures constructed in waters where ice cover is prevalent for several months a year are subjected to ice loading. Some of these structures are conical or sloped-faced in shape, where flexural failure becomes the dominant mode of failure for the ice sheet. The flexural failure mode reduces the magnitude of ice-structure interaction loads in comparison to other modes of failure. Various researchers have devised flexural failure models for ice-conical structure interactions. Each model shares the same principle of the ice sheet being modeled as a beam on an elastic foundation, but each model has different limitations in precisely simulating the interaction. Some models do not incorporate the ice rubble pile, while other models make oversimplified assumptions for three-dimensional behavior. The proposed three-dimensional (3D) model aims to reduce some of these limitations with the following features: (1) modeling the geometry of the ice rubble pile around the conical pier using the results of small-scale tests, (2) modeling the loads exerted by the ice rubble pile on the conical structure and ice sheet with a rigorous method of slices, (3) adding driving forces in keeping the rubble pile intact and in upward motion during the interaction, (4) accounting for eccentric offsetting moments at the ice-structure contacts, and (5) modeling the flexural behavior of the ice sheet subject to ice rubble loads using finite element method. The proposed model is used to analyze the interaction events recorded at the conical piers of the Confederation Bridge over a period of 11 years.

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