Although novel techniques and high performance material open the way for generation of high-performance welded joints, the welding operations are inherently quite complex and expensive. This has been the case, especially for super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) welding. If inappropriate parameter combinations are selected, then the welding process degrades the strength and corrosion resistance because of an unbalanced ferrite/austenite content in an SDSS welded joint. Therefore, it is vital to determine the optimal combination of parameters such as welding process, rate of shielding gas, heat input, and weld geometry. In addition, the optimal combination of parameter levels plays an important role in maintaining the microstructural and mechanical properties in the weld's metal region. This paper illustrates an expert knowledge based methodology for designing the optimal parameter combination, using an engineering robust design approach (ERDA) and related experimentation results. The experiments were performed to investigate the effect of welding factors (i.e., gap geometry, different welding techniques, material transfer and welding processes) on the material properties in the weld and heat affected zone (HAZ). The optimal parameter combination, results of the verification experiment, and the metallographic examination results of selected regions of the butt welded joints are presented.

References

References
1.
Huang
,
H.-Y.
,
2010
, “
Effects of Activating Flux on the Welded Joint Characteristics in Gas Metal Arc Welding
,”
Mater. Des.
,
31
(
5
), pp.
2488
2495
.
2.
Magudeeswaran
,
G.
,
Nair
,
S. R.
,
Sundar
,
L.
, and
Harikannan
,
N.
,
2014
, “
Optimization of Process Parameters of the Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding for Aspect Ratio of UNS S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel Welds
,”
Def. Technol.
,
10
(
3
), pp.
251
260
.
3.
Yousefieh
,
M.
,
Shamanian
,
M.
, and
Saatchi
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Optimization of the Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (PCGTAW) Parameters for Corrosion Resistance of Super Duplex Stainless Steel (UNS S32760) Welds Using the Taguchi Method
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
509
(
3
), pp. 782–788.
4.
Davis
,
J. R.
,
1996
,
ASM Specialty Handbook-Stainless Steels
,
ASM International
,
Materials Park, OH
.
5.
Farnoush
,
H.
,
Momeni
,
A.
,
Dehghani
,
K.
,
Aghazadeh Mohandesi
,
J.
, and
Keshmiri
,
H.
,
2010
, “
Hot Deformation Characteristics of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Based on the Behavior of Constituent Phases
,”
Mater. Des.
,
31
(
1
), pp.
220
226
.
6.
Tavares
,
S. S. M.
,
Terra
,
V. F.
,
Parada
,
J. M.
, and
Fonsecam
,
M. P. C.
,
2005
, “
Influence of the Microstructure on the Toughness of a Duplex Stainless Steel UNS S31803
,”
J. Mater. Sci.
,
40
(
1
), pp.
145
154
.
7.
Geng
,
S.
,
Sun
,
J.
,
Guo
,
L.
, and
Wang
,
H.
,
2015
, “
Evolution of Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior in 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel GTA-Welding Joint
,”
J. Manuf. Process.
,
19
, pp.
32
37
.
8.
Nascimentoa
,
M. P.
,
Batistab
,
C. C.
,
Sorrijaa
,
B. A.
, and
Voorwalda
,
H. J. C.
,
2014
, “
Fatigue Crack Growth Investigation on a Maintenance Welding Repair Applied on a High Responsibility Airframe
,”
Procedia Mater. Sci.
,
3
, pp.
744
749
.
9.
Sathiya
,
P.
, and
Abdul Jaleel
,
M. Y.
,
2010
, “
Grey-Based Taguchi Method for Optimization of Bead Geometry in Laser Bead-on-Plate Welding
,”
Adv. Prod. Eng. Manage.
,
5
(
4
), pp.
225
234
.
10.
Singh
,
P. K.
,
Patel
,
D.
, and
Prasad
,
S. B.
,
2016
, “
Optimization of Process Parameters During Vibratory Welding Technique Using Taguchi's Analysis
,”
Perspect. Sci.
,
8
, pp.
399
402
.
11.
Kumar
,
A.
,
Maheshwari
,
S.
, and
Sharma
,
S. K.
,
2015
, “
Optimization of Vickers Hardness and Impact Strength of Silica Based Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding by Taguchi Method
,”
Mater. Today: Proc.
,
2
(
4–5
), pp.
1092
1101
.
12.
Manikandan
,
M.
,
Rao
,
M. N.
,
Ramanujam
,
R.
,
Ramkumar
,
D.
,
Arivazhagan
,
N.
, and
Reddy
,
G. M.
,
2014
, “
Optimization of the Pulsed Current Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Process Parameters for Alloy C-276 Using the Taguchi Method
,”
Procedia Eng.
,
97
, pp.
767
774
.
13.
Nandagopal
,
K.
, and
Kailasanathan
,
C.
,
2016
, “
Analysis of Mechanical Properties and Optimization of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Parameters on Dissimilar Metal Titanium (6Alsingle Bond4V) and Aluminium 7075 by Taguchi and ANOVA Techniques
,”
J. Alloys Compd.
,
682
, pp.
503
516
.
14.
Ratnayake
,
R. M. C.
,
2013
, “
An Algorithm to Prioritize Welding Quality Deterioration Factors: A Case Study From a Piping Component Fabrication Process
,”
Int. J. Qual. Reliab. Manage.
,
30
(
6
), pp.
616
638
.
15.
Ratnayake
,
R. M. C.
,
2014
, “
A Methodology for Assessing Most Vulnerable Welding Procedure Specifications and Imperfection Factors
,”
Int. J. Data Anal. Tech. Strat.
,
6
(
4
), pp.
362
383
.
16.
Mirapeix
,
J.
,
García-Allende
,
P. B.
,
Cobo
,
A.
,
Conde
,
O. M.
, and
López-Higuera
,
J. M.
,
2007
, “
Real-Time Arc-Welding Defect Detection and Classification With Principal Component Analysis and Artificial Neural Networks
,”
NDT&E Int.
,
40
(
4
), pp.
315
323
.
17.
Ratnayake
,
R. M. C.
,
2013
, “
A Mathematical Framework for Parameter Designing Under the Noise: A Case Study From a Conventional Turning Machine
,”
IEEE
International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management
, Dec. 10–13, pp.
290
294
.
18.
Montgomery
,
D. C.
,
2006
,
Design and Analysis of Experiments
,
4th ed.
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
19.
Phadke
,
M. S.
,
1989
,
Quality Engineering Using Robust Design
,
PTR Prentice-Hall
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
20.
Unal
,
R.
,
1991
, “
Taguchi Approach to Design Optimization for Quality and Cost: An Overview
,”
Annual Conference of the International Society of Parametric Analysts
, Jan. 1.
21.
Kamaruddin
,
S.
,
Zahid Khan
,
A.
, and
Foong
,
S. H.
,
2010
, “
Application of Taguchi Method in the Optimization of Injection Moulding Parameters for Manufacturing Products From Plastic Blend
,”
Int. J. Eng. Tech.
,
2
(
6
), pp.
574
580
.
22.
Iorio
,
L.
,
Cortie
,
M.
, and
Jones
,
R.
,
1994
, “
Technical Note: Solubility of Nitrogen in Experimental Low-Nickel Austenitic Stainless Steels
,”
J. South. Afr. Inst. Min. Metall.
,
94
(
7
), pp.
173
177
.
23.
Nilsson
,
J. O.
,
1992
, “
Super Duplex Stainless Steels
,”
J. Mater. Sci. Tech.
,
8
(
8
), pp.
685
700
.
24.
IMOA
,
2009
, “
Practical Guidelines for the Fabrication of Duplex Stainless Steel
,” The International Molybdenum Association, London, UK, pp.
1
64
.
25.
TWI
,
2014
, “
Duplex Stainless Steel—Part 22
,” TWI, Ltd, Cambridge, UK, accessed Dec, 29, 2014, http://www.twi-global.com/technical-knowledge/job-knowledge/duplex-stainless-steel-part-2-106/
26.
Baeslack
,
W. A.
,
Savage
,
W. F.
, and
Duquette
,
D. J.
,
1979
, “
Effect of Nitrogen on the Microstructure and Stress Corrosion Cracking of Stainless Steel Weld Metals
,”
Weld. Res. Suppl.
,
58
(
Suppl.
), pp.
83s
90s
.
27.
Francis
,
R.
,
1994
, “
Environmental Cracking and Embrittlement of Duplex Stainless Steels
,” 4th International Conference Duplex Stainless Steels 94, Glasgow, Scotland, Nov. 13–16, Woodhead Publishing, Abington, UK, Vol. 3, Keynote Paper No. IV.
28.
Lincoln Smitweld
, “
Lincoln, Guidelines for Welding Zeron 100 Super Duplex Stainless Steel
,” Lincoln Smitweld, Nijmegen, The Netherlands, accessed Dec. 29,
2014
, http://www.lasgroepzuid.com/documenten/guidelines_zeron.pdf
29.
Pati
,
F. M.
,
2010
, “
Study of Parametric Optimization of Microdrilling Operation Using Taguchi Method
,” National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Orissa, India, accessed April, 4, 2013, http://ethesis.nitrkl.ac.in/2066/1/PROJECT_REPORT4.docxnew1.pdf
30.
Taguchi
,
G.
, and
Phadke
,
M. S.
,
1984
, “
Quality Engineering Through Design Optimization
,”
GLOBECOM 84 Meeting
, IEEE Communications Society, Atlanta, GA.
31.
Phadke
,
M. S.
,
1988
, “
Optimization of Product and Process Design for Quality and Cost
,”
Qual. Reliab. Eng. Int.
,
4
(
2
), pp.
105
112
.
32.
Kolahan
,
F.
,
Manoochehri
,
M.
, and
Hosseini
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Application of Taguchi Method and ANOVA Analysis for Simultaneous Optimization of Machining Parameters and Tool Geometry in Turning
,”
World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol.
,
74
, pp.
82
85
.
33.
Kolahan
,
F.
,
Manoochehri
,
M.
, and
Hosseini
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Simultaneous Optimization of Machining Parameters and Tool Geometry Specifications in Turning Operation of AISI1045 Steel
,”
Proc. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol.
,
50
, pp.
785
788
.
34.
Kumar
,
S.
,
Gupta
,
M.
,
Satsangi
,
P. S.
, and
Sardana
,
H. K.
,
2011
, “
Modeling and Analysis for Surface Roughness and Material Removal Rate in Machining of UD-GFRP Using PCD Tool
,”
Int. J. Eng. Sci. Technol.
,
3
(
8
), pp.
248
270
.
35.
Daniel
,
C.
,
1976
,
Applications of Statistics to Industrial Experimentation
,
Wiley
,
New York
.
You do not currently have access to this content.