Steel pipes are used to build pipelines that carry gas and oil across a country or a continent. The majority of onshore pipelines run underground; hence, they are called buried pipelines. These buried pipelines must endure external interferences and complex loading that result from geotechnical causes, aggressive environments, and operational requirements. Many segments of an underground pipeline may rest on rock tips and other localized hard surfaces, resulting in concentrated reaction load acting on small area of the outer wall of the operating pipeline. As a result, permanent inward deformations in the pipe wall, known as dent defect, can form. In addition, a resulting cross-sectional irregularity, known as an ovalization defect, can also occur. Pipe ovalization defects are a concern of pipeline operating companies, as the defect may challenge a pipeline's operation and/or structural integrity and safety. This research was completed by the Centre of Engineering Research in Pipelines located at the University of Windsor to examine the effects that rock tip shape, operating (internal) pressure, and a pipe's diameter-to-thickness ratio (D/t) have on an NPS30 X70-grade pipe's ovalization defect when it is subjected to such a concentrated load. This article discusses the lab-based full-scale examinations, finite element analysis (FEA) simulations, results, and discussions.

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