The design of wind turbines requires information about joint data for wind and wave conditions. Moreover, combining offshore wind and wave energy facilities is a potential way to reduce the cost of offshore wind farms. To design combined offshore renewable energy concepts, it is important to choose sites where both wind and wave energy resources are substantial. This paper deals with joint environmental data for five European offshore sites which serve as basis for the analysis and comparison of combined renewable energy concepts developed in the EU FP7 project—MARINA Platform. The five sites cover both shallow and deep water, with three sites facing the Atlantic Ocean and two sites in the North Sea. The long-term joint distributions of wind and wave parameters are presented for these sites. Simultaneous hourly mean wind and wave hindcast data from 2001 to 2010 are used as a database. The joint distributions are modeled by fitting analytical distributions to the hindcast data. The long-term joint distributions can be used to estimate the wind and wave power output from each combined concept and to estimate the fatigue lifetime of the structure. The marginal distributions of wind and wave parameters are also provided. Based on the joint distributions, contour surfaces are established for combined wind and wave parameters for which the probability of exceedance corresponds to a return period of 50 years. The design points on the 50-year contour surfaces are suggested for extreme response analysis of combined concepts.

References

References
1.
Martinez
,
I.
, and
Pavn
,
C. L.
,
2011
,
Deliverable D3.4: Recommended Concepts for Further Documentation and Analysis
,
Marine Renewable Integrated Application Platform
.
2.
Muliawan
,
M. J.
,
Karimirad
,
M.
, and
Moan
,
T.
,
2013
, “
Dynamic Response and Power Performance of a Combined Spar-Type Floating Wind Turbine and Coaxial Floating Wave Energy Converter
,”
Renewable Energy
,
50
, pp.
47
57
.10.1016/j.renene.2012.05.025
3.
Bachynski
,
E. E.
, and
Moan
,
T.
,
2013
, “
Point Absorber Design for a Combined Wind and Wave Energy Converter on a Tension-Leg Support Structure
,”
ASME
Paper No. OMAE2013-10429.10.1115/OMAE2013-10429
4.
Prez-Collazo
,
C.
,
Greaves
,
D.
, and
Iglesias
,
G.
,
2015
, “
A Review of Combined Wave and Offshore Wind Energy
,”
Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev.
,
42
, pp.
141
153
.10.1016/j.rser.2014.09.032
5.
IEC
,
2005
,
Wind Turbines Part 1: Design Requirements
,
International Electrotechnical Commission
, Geneva, Switzerland, IEC-61400-1.
6.
Winterstein
,
S. R.
,
Ude
,
T. C.
,
Cornell
,
C. A.
,
Bjerager
,
P.
, and
Haver
,
S.
,
1993
, “
Environmental Parameters for Extreme Response: Inverse FORM With Omission Factors
,”
6th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability
, Innsbruck, Austria.
7.
Meling
,
T. S.
,
Johannessen
,
K.
,
Haver
,
S.
, and
Larsen
,
K.
,
2000
, “
Mooring Analysis of a Semi-Submersible by Use of IFORM and Contour Surfaces
,”
ETCE/OMAE2000 Joint Conference for the New Millennium
, Paper No. OMAE2000/osu oft-4141.
8.
DNV
,
2010
,
Recommended Practice DNV-RP-C205, Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads
, Det Norske Veritas, Høvik, Norway.
9.
Winterstein
,
S. R.
, and
Engebretsen
,
K.
,
1998
, “
Reliability-Based Prediction of Design Loads and Responses for Floating Ocean Structures
,”
17th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
,
Lisbon, Portugal
, Paper No. OMAE 98-1381.
10.
Moan
,
T.
,
Gao
,
Z.
, and
Ayala-Uraga
,
E.
,
2005
, “
Uncertainty of Wave-Induced Response of Marine Structures Due to Long-Term Variation of Extratropical Wave Conditions
,”
Mar. Struct.
,
18
(
4
), pp.
359
382
.10.1016/j.marstruc.2005.11.001
11.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
,
2010
, “
Joint Long-Term Models of Met-Ocean Parameters
,”
Marine Technology and Engineering
, Vol.
1
,
C.
Guedes Soares
,
Y.
Garbatov
,
N.
Fonseca
, and
A. P.
Teixeira
,
Taylor & Francis Group
,
London
, pp.
19
34
.
12.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
, and
Haver
,
S.
,
1995
, “
Maximum Likelihood Models of Joint Environmental Data for TLP Design
,”
14th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
,
Copenhagen, Denmark
, June 18–22, Vol. 2, pp.
535
545
.
13.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
, and
Haver
,
S.
,
1989
, “
Joint Long Term Description of Environmental Parameters for Structural Response Calculations
,”
2nd International Workshop on Wave Hindcasting and Forecasting
,
Vancouver, BC, Canada
.
14.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
, and
Haver
,
S.
,
1991
, “
Joint Environmental Model for Reliability Calculations
,”
The First International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference
,
Edinburgh, UK
, pp.
246
253
.
15.
Der Kiureghian
,
A.
, and
Liu
,
P.-L.
,
1986
, “
Structural Reliability Under Incomplete Probability Information
,”
J. Eng. Mech.
,
112
(
1
), pp.
85
104
.10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(1986)112:1(85)
16.
Madsen
,
H. O.
,
Krenk
,
S.
, and
Lind
,
N. C.
,
1986
,
Methods of Structural Safety
,
Prentice-Hall Inc.
,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ
.
17.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
,
Guedes Soares
,
C.
,
Machado
,
U.
, and
Cavaco
,
P.
,
1998
, “
Comparison Different Approaches to Joint Environmental Modeling
,”
17th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
,
Lisbon, Portugal
, Paper No. OMAE98-1495.
18.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
, and
Hagen
,
Ø.
,
1999
, “
Extreme Value Analysis of Wave Steepness and Crest Using Joint Environmental Description
,”
18th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
,
Newfoundland, Canada
, Paper No. OMAE99/S&R-6033.
19.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
,
2005
, “
Joint Probabilistic Description for Combined Seas
,”
ASME
Paper No. OMAE2005-6738210.1115/OMAE2005-67382.
20.
DNV
,
2010
,
Offshore Standard DNV-OS-E301—Position Mooring
, Det Norske Veritas, Høvik, Norway.
21.
Johannessen
,
K.
,
Meling
,
T. S.
, and
Haver
,
S.
,
2002
, “
Joint Distribution for Wind and Waves in the Northern North Sea
,”
Int. J. Offshore Polar Eng.
,
12
(
1
), pp.
1
8
.
22.
Kallos
,
G.
,
Nickovic
,
S.
,
Papadopoulos
,
A.
,
Jovic
,
D.
,
Kakaliagou
,
O.
,
Misirlis
,
N.
,
Boukas
,
L.
,
Mimikou
,
N.
,
Sakellaridis
,
G.
, and
Papageorgiou
,
J.
,
1997
, “
The Regional Weather Forecasting System SKIRON: An Overview
,”
Proceedings of the Symposium on Regional Weather Prediction on Parallel Computer Environments
, Vol.
15
, p.
17
.
23.
Papadopoulos
,
A.
,
Katsafados
,
P.
, and
Kallos
,
G.
,
2001
, “
Regional Weather Forecasting for Marine Application
,”
Global Atmos. Ocean Syst.
,
8
, pp.
219
237
.
24.
Louka
,
P.
,
Galanis
,
G.
,
Siebert
,
N.
,
Kariniotakis
,
G.
,
Katsafados
,
P.
,
Pytharoulis
,
I.
, and
Kallos
,
G.
,
2008
, “
Improvements in Wind Speed Forecasts for Wind Power Prediction Purposes Using Kalman Filtering
,”
J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn.
,
96
(
12
), pp.
2348
2362
.10.1016/j.jweia.2008.03.013
25.
WAMDIG
,
1988
, “
The WAM Model—A Third Generation Ocean Wave Prediction Model
,”
J. Phys. Oceanogr.
,
18
(
12
), pp.
1775
1810
.10.1175/1520-0485(1988)018<1775:TWMTGO>2.0.CO;2
26.
Komen
,
G. J.
,
Cavaleri
,
L.
,
Donelan
,
M.
,
Hasselmann
,
K.
,
Hasselmann
,
S.
, and
Janssen
,
P.
,
1996
,
Dynamics and Modelling of Ocean Waves
,
Cambridge University Press
, New York.10.1017/CBO9780511628955
27.
Cradden
,
L.
,
Ingram
,
D.
,
Davey
,
T.
, and
Sofianos
,
S.
,
2010
,
Deliverable D2.1: Site Assessment, Marine Renewable Integrated Application Platform
.
28.
Galanis
,
G.
,
Emmanouil
,
G.
,
Chu
,
P. C.
, and
Kallos
,
G.
,
2009
, “
A New Methodology for the Extension of the Impact of Data Assimilation on Ocean Wave Prediction
,”
Ocean Dyn.
,
59
(
3
), pp.
523
535
.10.1007/s10236-009-0191-8
29.
Emmanouil
,
G.
,
Galanis
,
G.
, and
Kallos
,
G.
,
2010
, “
A New Methodology for Using Buoy Measurements in Sea Wave Data Assimilation
,”
Ocean Dyn.
,
60
(
5
), pp.
1205
1218
.10.1007/s10236-010-0328-9
30.
Saulnier
,
J. B.
,
2012
,
Comparison of SKIRON Wave Model Against In Situ Buoy Measurements on SEM-REV, Marine Renewable Integrated Application Platform
.
31.
Mei
,
C. C.
,
Stiassnie
,
M.
, and
Yue
,
D. K.-P.
,
2005
,
Theory and Applications of Ocean Surface Waves. Part 1: Linear Aspects
, Vol.
23
,
World Scientific
,
Singapore
.
32.
Jonkman
,
J.
,
Butterfield
,
S.
,
Musial
,
W.
, and
Scott
,
G.
,
2009
, “
Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for Offshore System Development
,”
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
, Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-3806.
33.
Haver
,
S.
,
1980
, “
Analysis of Uncertainties Related to the Stochastic Modelling of Ocean Waves
,” Ph.D. thesis, Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
34.
Bitner-Gregersen
,
E. M.
,
2010
, “
Uncertainty of Long-Term Probabilistic Modelling of Wind Sea and Swell
,”
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
,
Shanghai, China
, June 7–11, Paper No. OMAE2010-20682.
You do not currently have access to this content.