Sloshing, a violent fluid motion in tanks is of current interest for many branches of the industry, among them gas shipping. Although different methods are commonly combined for analyzing sloshing in liquid natural gas (LNG) carriers, time histories of the pressure in the tanks are most reliably obtained by experiments. Very localized pressures may be important for the structural response of the tank containment system. Moreover, the typical pressure time history duration is similar to the structural natural frequency. Therefore, pressure measurements need to be performed with due account for temporal and spatial distribution. This requires a high sampling resolution both in time and space. Fine spatial resolution becomes especially important when local pressure effects are of interest, such as pressure profile passing a membrane corrugation of Mark III containment or Invar edge of No. 96 containment. In this paper experimental approach applied by MARINTEK for analyzing sloshing phenomenon is presented. The focus is put on investigating effects of Invar edges. A transverse 2D model of a typical LNG carrier is used. Local pressure effects are investigated based on low filling level tests with different wall surfaces: smooth and with horizontal protrusions representing the surface similar to the No. 96 containment system.

References

References
1.
RINA, 2006,
Proceedings of the International Conference on Design, Construction & Operation of Natural Gas Carriers & Offshore Systems (ICSOT)
, Busan,
Korea
.
2.
Abramson
,
H. N.
, Ed., 1966, The Dynamic Behavior of Liquids in Moving Containers, No. NASA SP-106, National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
3.
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
, 1974. “
A Nonlinear Theory of Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
18
(
4
), pp.
224
241
.
4.
Olsen
,
H.
, and
Johnsen
,
K. R.
, 1975, “
Nonlinear Sloshing in Rectangular Tanks. A Pilot Study on the Applicability of Analytical Models
,” Tech. Rep. 74-72-S, Vol.
II
, Det Norske Veritas.
5.
Verhagen
,
J. H. G.
, and
van Winjgaarden
,
L.
, 1965, “
Non-linear Oscillations of Fluid in a Container
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
22
(
4
), pp.
737
751
.
6.
Chester
,
W.
, and
Bones
,
J. A.
, 1968, “
Resonant Oscillation of Water Waves. II. Experiment
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London
,
306
, pp.
23
30
.
7.
Rognebakke
,
O. F.
, 2002, “
Sloshing in the Rectangular Tanks and Interaction With Ship Motions
,”
Ph.D. thesis
,
Department of Marine Hydrodynamics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
,
Norway
.
8.
Akyildiz
,
H.
, and
Ünal
,
E.
, 2005, “
Experimental Investigation of Pressure Distribution on a Rectangular Tank Due to the Liquid Sloshing
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
32
, pp.
1503
1516
.
9.
Lugni
,
C.
,
Brocchini
,
M.
, and
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
, 2006, “
Wave Impact Loads: The Role of the Flip-Through
,”
Phys. Fluids
,
18
, p.
122101
.
10.
Pastoor
,
W.
,
Ostvold
,
T. K.
,
Byklum
,
E.
, and
Valsgard
,
S.
, 2005, “
Sloshing Load and Response in LNG Carriers for New Designs, New Operations and New Trades
,” in
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference and Exhibit, Gastech 2005
, Bilbao,
Spain
.
11.
Richardson
,
A. J.
,
Bray
,
W. H.
,
Sandstrom
,
R. E.
,
Lokken
,
R. T.
, and
Danaczko
,
M. A.
, 2005, “
Advances in Assessment of LNG Sloshing for Large Membrane Ships
,” in
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference and Exhibit, Gastech 2005
, Bilbao,
Spain
.
12.
Rognebakke
,
O. F.
,
Hoff
,
J. R.
,
Allers
,
J. M.
,
Berget
,
K.
,
Berge
,
B. O.
, and
Zhao
,
R.
, 2005, “
Experimental Approaches for Determining Sloshing Loads in LNG Tanks
,”
SNAME Maritime Technology Conference and Exposition
, Houston,
Texas
.
13.
Zalar
,
M.
,
Cambos
,
P.
,
Besse
,
P.
,
Le Gallo
,
B.
, and
Mravak
,
Z.
, 2005, “
Partial Filling of Membrane Type LNG Carriers
,” in
Proceedings of the 21st International Conference and Exhibit,Gastech 2005
, Bilbao,
Spain
.
14.
Graczyk
,
M.
,
Moan
,
T.
, and
Rognebakke
,
O.
, 2006, “
Probabilistic Analysis of Characteristic Pressure for LNG Tanks
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
,
128
, pp.
133
144
.
15.
Graczyk
,
M.
, and
Moan
,
T.
, 2008, “
A Probabilistic Assessment of Design Sloshing Pressure Time Histories in LNG Tanks
,”
Ocean Eng.
,
35
, pp.
834
855
.
16.
Yung
,
T. W.
,
Ding
,
J.
,
He
,
H.
, and
Sandstrom
,
R. E.
, 2009, “
LNG Sloshing: Characteristics and Scaling Laws.
,” Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, pp.
85
91
.
17.
He
,
H.
,
Kuo
,
J. F.
,
Rinehart
,
A. J.
, and
Yung
,
T. W.
, 2009, “
Influence of Raised Invar Edges on Sloshing Impact Pressure.
,” Proceedings of the Nineteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, pp.
100
106
.
18.
Pakozdi
,
C.
, and
Graczyk
,
M.
, 2009, “
Validation of an SPH Sloshing Simulation By Experiments
,” Proceedings of 28th International Conference Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering.
19.
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
,
Rognebakke
,
O. F.
,
Lukovsky
,
I. A.
, and
Timokha
,
A. N.
, 2000, “
Multidimensional Modal Analysis of Nonlinear Sloshing in a Rectangular Tank With Finite Water Depth
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
407
, pp.
201
234
.
20.
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
, and
Timokha
,
A. N.
, 2002, “
Asymptotic Modal Approximation of Nonlinear Resonant Sloshing in a Rectangular Tank With Small Fluid Depth
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
470
, pp.
319
357
.
21.
Graczyk
,
M.
, and
Moan
,
T.
, 2011, “
Structural Response to Sloshing Excitation in Membrane LNG Tank
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arctic Eng.
133
, p.
021103
.
22.
Faltinsen
,
O. M.
, and
Timokha
,
A.
, 2009,
Sloshing
,
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge
.
You do not currently have access to this content.