An algorithm for heat transfer prediction of in-service welding operations in a forced flow of fluid is presented. The algorithm presented is derived from Rosenthal’s 3D heat flow equation and boundary layer approximations. This was possible by the introduction of an apparent thermal conductivity kPL, which is a function of the boundary layer’s heat transfer coefficient αf and the base material’s thickness δ. This implies that a weld cooling time ΔtT1/T2 in a forced flow of fluid can now be calculated by an ordinary engineering calculator and thus enabling suitable welding parameters to be determined. The magnitude of kPL(αf,δ) was established by regression analysis of results from a parametric finite element analysis series of a total number of 112 numerical simulations. Furthermore, the result of the regression analysis was validated and verified by a welding experiment series accomplished on an in-house designed and constructed in-service welding rig. The principle design of the welding rig as well as its instrumentation, a PC based Data Acquisition system, is described. In addition, a method to measure the weld metals cooling time ΔtT1/T2 by means of thermocouple elements is described. Finally, the algorithm presented in this study proved feasible for industrial in-service welding operations of fine-grained Carbon and Carbon–Manganese steels with a maximum Carbon Equivalent (IIW) (CE) of 0.32.

1.
Easterling
,
K.
, 1992,
Introduction to the Physical Metallurgy of Welding
,
2nd ed.
,
Butterworth-Heinemann
,
Oxford, UK
.
2.
Rosenthal
,
D.
, 1946, “
The Theory of Moving Sources of Heat and Its Applications to Metal Treatments
,”
Trans. ASME
0097-6822,
68
, pp.
849
866
.
3.
Rykalin
,
N.
, 1957,
Berechnung der Wärmevorgänge beim Schweissen
,
Verlag Technik
,
Berlin, Germany
.
4.
SSAB Oxelösund AB
, 1999, WeldCalc™ Version 1.0, Oxelösund, Sweden.
5.
Svensson
,
L. -E.
, 1994,
Control of Microstructures and Properties in Steel Arc Welds
,
CRC
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
6.
Lindström
,
P.
, and
Ulfvarson
,
A.
, 2002, “
Weld Repair of Shell Plates During Seagoing Operations
,”
21st International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
.
7.
Schlichting
,
H.
, 1979,
Boundary Layer Theory
,
7th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
New York
.
8.
Eckert
,
E.
, and
Drake
,
M.
, 1987,
Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer
,
Hemisphere
,
New York
.
9.
Lindström
,
P.
, and
Faraji
,
M.
, 2004, “
Review and Selection of a Finite Element Simulation Platform for Academic and Industrial Analyses of In-Service Welding Operations
,”
23rd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
.
10.
Kleinbaum
,
D.
,
Kupper
,
L.
, and
Muller
,
K.
, 1988,
Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods
,
2nd Ed.
,
PWS-KENT
,
Boston, MA
.
11.
Perry
,
P.
, and
Green
,
D.
, 1984,
Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook
,
6th ed.
,
McGraw-Hill
,
Singapore
.
12.
Sturluson
,
S.
, 2002,
The Prose Edda, Tales From Norse Mythology
,
University of California, Columbia, and Princeton Press
,
CA
.
13.
TC LTD
, “
A Guide to Thermocouple and Resistance Thermometry
,” Issue 6.0, Uxbridge, UK.
14.
Bruce
,
W. A.
, private communication.
15.
Svensson
,
L. -E.
, private communication.
16.
Lindström
,
P.
, and
Ulfvarson
,
A.
, 2003, “
An Experimental Rig for Verification of the Mechanical Properties of Welds produced at In-service Welding
,”
22nd International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering
.
17.
2001, “
Welding-Recommendations for Welding of Metallic Materials—Part 2: Arc Welding of Ferritic Steels
,” EN 1011-2, Swedish Standards Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
18.
2004, “
Welding-Recommendations for Welding of Metallic Materials—Part 2: Arc Welding of Ferritic Steels
,” EN 1011-2/A1, Swedish Standards Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
19.
2004, “
Specification and Qualification of Welding Procedures for Metallic Materials—Welding Procedure Test
,” prEN ISO 15614, Swedish Standards Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
20.
Tusek
,
F.
,
Markelj
,
J.
,
Barbic
,
J.
, and
Jez
,
B.
, 2003, “
Influence of Type of Weld Joint on Welding Efficiency
”,
Sci. Technol. Weld. Joining
1362-1718,
8
(
3
), pp.
157
164
.
You do not currently have access to this content.