Any device aiming to harness the abundant clean and renewable energy from ocean and other water resources must have high energy density, be unobtrusive, have low maintenance, be robust, meet life cycle cost targets, and have a 1020year life. The vortex induced vibration aquatic clean energy (VIVACE) converter—invented by Bernitsas and Raghavan, patent pending through the University of Michigan—satisfies those criteria. It converts ocean/river current hydrokinetic energy to a usable form of energy such as electricity using VIV successfully and efficiently for the first time. VIVACE is based on the idea of maximizing rather than spoiling vortex shedding and exploiting rather than suppressing VIV. It introduces optimal damping for energy conversion while maintaining VIV over a broad range of vortex shedding synchronization. VIV occurs over very broad ranges of Reynolds (Re) number. Only three transition regions suppress VIV. Thus, even from currents as slow as 0.25ms, VIVACE can extract energy with high power conversion ratio making ocean/river current energy a more accessible and economically viable resource. In this paper, the underlying concepts of the VIVACE converter are discussed. The designs of the physical model and laboratory prototype are presented. A mathematical model is developed, and design particulars for a wide range of application scales are calculated. Experimental measurements on the laboratory prototype are reported in the sequel paper and used here for preliminary benchmarking.

1.
Pontes
,
M. T.
, and
Falcão
,
A.
, 2001, “
Ocean Energies: Resources and Utilization
,”
Proceedings of 18th WEC Congress
,
Buenos Aires
, Oct.
2.
World Energy Council
, 2001,
Survey of Energy Resources
,
19th ed.
,
World Energy Council
,
London
.
3.
Bernitsas
,
M. M.
, and
Raghavan
,
K.
, 2004, “
Converter of Current/Tide/Wave Energy
,” Provisional Patent Application, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Serial No. 60/628,252.
4.
Bernitsas
,
M. M.
, and
Raghavan
,
K.
, 2005 “
Supplement to the U.S. Provisional Patent Application titled `Converter of Current, Tide, or Wave Energy'
,” University of Michigan Ref. No. 2973.
5.
Bernitsas
,
M. M.
, and
Raghavan
,
K.
, 2005, “
Fluid Motion Energy Converter
,” U.S. Patent Application, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Serial No. 11/272,504.
6.
Bernitsas
,
M. M.
, and
Raghavan
,
K.
, 2005, “
Fluid Motion Energy Converter
,” International Provisional Patent Application, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
10.
12.
Thorpe
,
T. W.
, 1998, “
An Overview of Wave Energy Technologies
,” Future Energy Solutions.
13.
Commission of the European Com., DGXII
, 1996, “
Wave Energy Project Results: The Exploitation of Tidal Marine Currents
,” Report EUR16683EN.
14.
International Energy Agency—Ocean Energy Systems, Status and Research and Development Priorities 2003: Wave and Marine Current Energy.
15.
Clark
,
R. O.
, 1999 “
Fluid Energy Converting Method and Apparatus
,” U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Patent No. 4,347,036.
16.
Yoshitake
,
Y.
,
Sueoka
,
A.
,
Yamasaki
,
M.
,
Sugimura
,
Y.
, and
Ohishi
,
T.
, 2004, “
Quenching of Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Towering Structure and Generation of Electricity Using Hula-Hoops
,”
J. Sound Vib.
0022-460X,
272
, pp.
21
38
.
17.
Carberry
,
J.
, 2001, “
Wake States of a Submerged Oscillating Cylinder and of a Cylinder Beneath a Free Surface
,” Ph.D thesis, Monash University, Australia.
18.
Gopalkrishnan
,
R.
, 1993, “
Vortex Induced Forces on Oscillating Bluff Cylinders
,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Ocean Engineering, MIT, Cambridge.
19.
Khalak
,
A.
, and
Williamson
,
C. H. K.
, 1997, “
Fluid Forces and Dynamics of a Hydroelastic Structure With Very Low Mass and Damping
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
0889-9746,
11
, pp.
973
982
.
20.
Khalak
,
A.
, and
Williamson
,
C. H. K.
, 1999, “
Motions, Forces and Mode Transitions in Vortex-Induced Vibrations at Low Mass-Damping
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
0889-9746,
13
, pp.
813
851
.
21.
Klamo
,
J. T.
,
Leonard
,
A.
, and
Roshko
,
A.
, 2005, “
On the Maximum Amplitude for a Freely Vibrating Cylinder in Cross-Flow
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
0889-9746,
21
, pp.
429
434
.
22.
Sumer
,
B. M.
, and
Fredsoe
,
J.
, 1997,
Hydrodynamics Around Cylindrical Structures
,
World Scientific
,
Singapore
.
23.
Williamson
,
C. H. K.
, and
Govardhan
,
R.
, 2004, “
Vortex Induced Vibrations
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
0066-4189,
36
, pp.
413
455
.
24.
Govardhan
,
R.
, and
Williamson
,
C. H. K.
, 2000, “
Modes of Vortex Formation and Frequency Response of a Freely Vibrating Cylinder
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
0022-1120,
420
, pp.
85
130
.
25.
Jauvtis
,
N.
, and
Williamson
,
C. H. K.
, 2003, “
Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Cylinder in Two Degrees of Freedom
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
0889-9746,
17
, pp.
1035
1048
.
26.
Sarpkaya
,
T.
, 2004, “
A Critical Review of the Intrinsic Nature of Vortex Induced Vibrations
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
0889-9746,
19
(
4
), pp.
389
447
.
27.
Govardhan
,
R.
, 2000, “
Vortex Induced Vibration of Two and Three Dimensional Bodies
,” thesis, Faculty of Graduate School of Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
28.
Sarpkaya
,
T.
, 1995, “
Hydrodynamic Damping, Flow-Induced Oscillations, and Biharmonic Response
,”
ASME J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng.
0892-7219,
117
, pp.
232
238
.
29.
Feng
,
C. C.
, 1968, “
The Measurements of Vortex-Induced Effects in Flow Past a Stationary and Oscillating Circular and D-Section Cylinders
,” M.Sc thesis, University of British Columbia.
30.
Bernitsas
,
M. M.
,
Ben-Simon
,
Y.
,
Raghavan
,
K.
, and
Garcia
,
E. M. H.
, 2006, “
The VIVACE Converter: Model Tests at High Damping and Reynolds Number Around 105
,” 25th International OMAE Conference, San Diego, CA, 10–15 June 2007.
31.
Ding
,
J.
,
Balasubramanian
,
S.
,
Lokken
,
R.
, and
Yung
,
T.
, 2004, “
Lift and Damping Characteristics of Bare and Straked Cylinders at Riser Scale Reynolds Numbers
,” Proceedings of OTC No. 16341.
32.
Williamson
,
C. H. K.
, and
Roshko
,
A.
, 1988, “
Vortex Formation in the Wake of an Oscillating Cylinder
,”
J. Fluids Struct.
0889-9746,
2
, pp.
355
381
.
33.
Brika
,
D.
, and
Laneville
,
A.
, 1993, “
Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Long Flexible Circular Cylinder
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
, 0022-1120
250
, pp.
481
508
.
34.
Brika
,
D.
, and
Laneville
,
A.
, 1995, “
The Hysteresis and Bifurcation Phenomena in the Aeolian Vibrations of a Circular Cylinder
,” Proceedings, Sixth International Conference on Flow-Induced Vibration, London, United Kingdom, 10–12 April 1995.
35.
Ben Simon
,
Y.
, 2005, “
Highly Damped Vortex Induced Vibrations of Circular Cylinder
,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
36.
Norberg
,
C.
1994, “
An Experimental Investigation of the Flow Around a Circular Cylinder: Influence of Aspect Ratio
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
0022-1120,
258
, pp.
287
316
.
37.
Szepessy
,
S.
, and
Bearman
,
P. W.
, 1992, “
Aspect Ratio and End Plate Effects on Vortex Shedding from a Circular Cylinder
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
0022-1120,
234
, pp.
191
218
.
38.
Bearman
,
P. W.
, 1984, “
Vortex Shedding from Oscillating Bluff Bodies
,”
Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech.
0066-4189,
16
, pp.
195
222
.
39.
Liao
,
J.
,
Beal
,
D. N.
,
Lauder
,
G. V.
, and
Triantafyllou
,
M. S.
, 2003, “
Fish Exploiting Vortices Decrease Muscle Activity
,”
Science
0036-8075,
302
, pp.
1566
1569
.
40.
Morison
,
J. R.
,
O’Brien
,
M. P.
,
Johnson
,
J. W.
, and
Schaaf
,
S. A.
, 1950, “
The Force Exerted by Surface Waves on Piles
,”
Trans. AIME
0096-4778,
189
, pp.
149
154
.
41.
Blevins
,
R. D.
, 1990,
Flow-Induced Vibration
,
2nd ed.
,
Van Nostrand Reinhold
,
New York
.
42.
Walker
,
D. T.
,
Lyzenga
,
D. R.
,
Ericson
,
E. A.
, and
Lund
,
D. E.
, 1996, “
Radar Backscatter and Surface Roughness Measurements for Stationary Breaking Waves
,”
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
1364-5021,
452
, pp.
1953
1984
.
43.
Zdravkovich
,
M. M.
, 1997,
Flow Around Circular Cylinders (Fundamentals)
,
Oxford University Press
,
Oxford, UK
, Vol.
1
.
44.
Zdravkovich
,
M. M.
, 2003,
Flow Around Circular Cylinders (Applications)
,
Oxford University Press
,
Oxford, UK
, Vol.
2
.
45.
Energy Information Administration (US Department of Energy) Energy Statistics, Data, and Analysis, http://www.eia.doe.gov/http://www.eia.doe.gov/
46.
Michigan Public Service Commission, 2005 Capacity Needs Forum Status Report No. U-14231.
47.
Ocean Power Technology
, 2001, “
Testimony to the US Congress
,” http://epw.senate.gov/107th/tay_0530.htmhttp://epw.senate.gov/107th/tay_0530.htm
48.
U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, http://www.uspto.gov/http://www.uspto.gov/
You do not currently have access to this content.