To investigate the mechanical properties of pipeline subjected to plastic deformation, tensile tests and crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) tests were conducted on X60, X65, and X80 line pipe steels with uniaxial tensile or compressive prestrain, . The tensile tests revealed that the Bauschinger effect and work hardening were dependent on the yield-to-tensile ratio of the steels; the change in yield stress due to prestrain linearly depended on the of the base metal. A critical CTOD for crack initiation decreased with increasing . Compressive prestrain had a larger effect on the reduction of the critical CTOD than tensile prestrain. The test results showed that the reduction in the critical CTOD due to tensile prestrain was predictable with a simplified theoretical model employing a critical fracture strain of the base metal.
Effect of Prestrain on Tensile and Fracture Toughness Properties of Line Pipes
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Fukuda, N., Hagiwara, N., and Masuda, T. (January 30, 2005). "Effect of Prestrain on Tensile and Fracture Toughness Properties of Line Pipes." ASME. J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. August 2005; 127(3): 263–268. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1894405
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