This paper gives a perspective on the current state of computational and experimental ship hydrodynamics, which has experienced significant progress and rapid change recently. In particular, with the use of more powerful computers and parallel computations, Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) calculations are more feasible for support of design studies. Some of the areas where RANS computations are being used for surface ships are demonstrated and an attempt is made to provide an indication of where the naval community is at in its ability to accurately predict some of these complex flow phenomenon. Concurrently, there have been efforts to obtain high quality experimental data for validating the computational tools. Such efforts have sought to obtain detailed flow field and wave height data in addition to conventional force data. This detailed information can be used to help quantify how accurately the flow physics can be predicted and begins to allow for a more formal verification and validation of the computations.

1.
Rood, E. P., 2000, “Computational Ship Hydrodynamics for Revolutionary Naval Combatants,” presented at DoD HPC User’s Group Conf., Albuquerque, NM.
2.
Valenti
,
M.
,
2001
, “
Stealth on the Water
,”
Mech. Eng. (Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.)
,
123
, pp.
56
61
.
3.
Allison, J. L., Becnel, A. J., Gorski, J. J., Hoyt, J. G., Purnell, J. G., Stricker, J. G., and Wilson, M. B., 2001, “Research in Waterjet Inlet, Hull, and Jet Interactions,” Int. Conf. Waterjet Propulsion III, Gothenburg, Sweden.
4.
Taylor, D. W., 1943, The Speed and Power of Ships, Second Revision, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, Original Volume 1910.
5.
Morgan, W. B., and Lin, W.-C., 1998, “Predicting Ship Hydrodynamic Performance in Today’s World,” Proc. From Research to Reality in Ship Systems Engrg. Symp., Tysons Corner, VA, pp. 165–175.
6.
Bai, K. J., and McCarthy, J. H. (eds.), 1979, Proc. Workshop on Ship Wave-Resistance Computations, David Taylor NSRDC, Bethesda, MD.
7.
Beck
,
R. F.
,
Reed
,
A. M.
, and
Rood
,
E. P.
,
1996
, “
Application of Modern Numerical Methods in Marine Hydrodynamics
,”
Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., Trans.
,
104
, pp.
519
537
.
8.
ITTC, 1996, “Report of the Resistance and Flow Committee,” Proc. 21st ITTC, Trondheim, Norway.
9.
Beck, R. F., and Reed, A. M., 2000, “Modern Seakeeping Computations for Ships,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydo., Val de Reuil, France.
10.
Larsson, L., 1997, “CFD in Ship Design—Prospects and Limitations,” 18th Georg Weinblaum Memorial Lecture, Ship Tech. Research, Vol. 44.
11.
Larsson, L., Regnstrom, B., Broberg, L., Li, D.-Q., and Janson, C.-E., 1998, “Failures, Fantasies, and Feats in the Theoretical/Numerical Prediction of Ship Performance,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington, pp. 11–32.
12.
ITTC, 1999, “Final Report and Recommendations to the 22nd ITTC of Resistance Committee,” Proc. 22nd ITTC, Vol. 1, Seoul/Shanghai, pp. 173–246.
13.
AIAA, 1995, “Assessment of Wind Tunnel Data Uncertainty,” AIAA, S-071-1995.
14.
Froude, W. M., 1874, “On Experiments with H.M.S. Greyhound,” Trans. INA, Vol. 15, pp. 36–73.
15.
ITTC, 1957, “Skin Friction and Turbulence Committee Report,” Proc. 8th ITTC., pp. 71–227.
16.
Sharma, S. D., 1963, “A Comparison of the Calculated and Measured Free-Wave Spectrum of an Inuid in Steady Motion,” Intern. Sem. Theoretical Wave Resistance, Ann Arbor, MI.
17.
Reed
,
A. M.
,
Beck
,
R. F.
,
Griffin
,
O. M.
, and
Peltzer
,
R. D.
,
1990
, “
Hydrodynamics of Remotely Sensed Surface Ship Wakes
,”
Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., Trans.
,
98
, pp.
319
363
.
18.
Gui, L., Longo, J., Metcalf, B., Shao, J., and Stern, F., 2000, “Forces, Moment and Wave Pattern for Naval Combatant in Regular Head Waves,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydro., Val de Reuil, France.
19.
Ratcliffe, T., 2000, “An Experimental and Computational Study of the Effects of Propulsion on the Free-Surface Flow Astern of Model 5415,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydro., Val de Reuil, France.
20.
Jessup, S. D., Remmers, K. D., and Berberich, W. G., 1993, “Comparative Cavitation Performance Evaluation of Naval Surface Ship Propeller,” Proc. ASME 4th Int. Symp. Cavitation Inception, ASME FED-Vol. 177.
21.
Fry, D. J., and Kim, Y. H., 1984, “Bow Flow Field of Surface Ships,” Proc. 15th Sym. Naval Hydro., Washington DC, pp. 319–346.
22.
Pirrone, M., and Lindenmuth, W., 1993, “Comparison of Wake Flow Measurements Between 5-Hole Pitot Probes and Laser Doppler Velocimetry in the Ship Propeller Plane,” Proc. 23rd ATTC Conf., Washington DC, pp. 129–135.
23.
Dong
,
R. R.
,
Katz
,
J.
, and
Huang
,
T. T.
,
1997
, “
On the Structure of Bow Waves on a Ship Model
,”
J. Fluid Mech.
,
346
, pp.
77
115
.
24.
Gui, L., Longo, J., and Stern, F., 1999, “Towing Tank PIV Measurement System and Data and Uncertainty Assessment for DTMB Model 5512,” 3rd Intern. Workshop on PIV, Santa Barbara, CA.
25.
Toda
,
Y.
,
Stern
,
F.
,
Tanaka
,
I.
, and
Patel
,
V. C.
,
1990
, “
Mean-Flow Measurements in the Boundary Layer and Wake of a Series 60 CB=0.6 Model With and Without Propeller
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
34
, pp.
225
252
.
26.
Toda, Y., Stern, F., and Longo, J., 1991, “Mean-Flow Measurements in the Boundary Layer and Wake and Wave Field of a Series 60 CB=.6 Ship Model for Froude Numbers .16 and .316,” IIHR Report 352, Iowa Inst. Hydraulic Res., Univ. of Iowa.
27.
Kodama, Y. (ed.), 1994, Proceedings, CFD Workshop Tokyo, Ship Research Inst. Ministry of Transport, Ship and Ocean Foundation, Tokyo, Japan, Vols. 1 and 2.
28.
Larsson, L., Patel, V. C., and Dyne, G. (eds.), 1991, “Ship Viscous Flow,” Proc. 1990 SSPA-CTH-IIHR Workshop, FlowTech Intern. AB, Res. Rep. No. 2, Gothenburg.
29.
Hoffman, H. P., 1976, “Investigation of the Three-Dimensional Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Double Model of a Ship in a Wind Tunnel,” (in German), Inst. Schiffbau Univ., Hamburg, Report 343.
30.
Wieghardt, K., and Kux, J., 1980, “Nominal Wakes Based on Wind Tunnel Tests,” (in German), Jahrbuch der Schiffbautechnischen Gesellschaft (STG), Springer Verlag, pp. 303–318.
31.
Knaak, T., Kux, J., and Wieghardt, K., 1985, “On the Structure of the Flow Field on Ship Hulls,” Proc. Osaka Int. Colloq. Ship Viscous Flow, Osaka, pp. 192–208.
32.
Larsson, L., Stern, F., and Bertram, V. (eds) 2000, “Gothenburg 2000 A Workshop on Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics,” Gothenburg, Sweden.
33.
Van, S. H., Kim, W. J., Kim, H. R., and Lee, S. J., 1999, “Wind Tunnel Test on Flow Characteristics of KRISO 300K VLCC Double Model,” Proc. Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Marine Hydro., Fukuoka, Japan.
34.
Van, S. H., Kim, W. J., Yim, G. T., Kim, D., H., and Lee, C. J., 1998, “Experimental Investigation of the Flow Characteristics Around Practical Hull Forms,” Proc. 3rd Osaka Coll. Adv. CFD App. Ship Flow and Hull Form Design, Osaka, Japan.
35.
Hori, T., Ukon, Y., and Takeshi, H., 2000, “Wave Profile Measurement Around the KCS in the SRI 400m Towing Tank,” Ship Perf. Div. Rep. No. 00-007-1, SRI, Tokyo, Japan.
36.
Fujisawa, J., Ukon, Y., Kume, K., and Takeshi, H., 2000, “Local Velocity Measurements Around the KCS Model (SRI M.S. No. 631) in the SRI 400m Towing Tank,” Ship Perf. Div. Rep. No. 00-003-2, SRI, Tokyo, Japan.
37.
Ratcliffe, T., 1998, “Validation of Free Surface Reynold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes and Potential Flow Codes,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington DC, pp. 964–980.
38.
Stern, F., Longo, J., Penna, R., Olivieri, A., Ratcliffe, T., and Coleman, H., 2000, “International Collaboration on Benchmark CFD Validation Data for Surface Combatant DTMB Model 5415,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydro., Val de Reuil, France.
39.
Etter, R. J., and Wilson, M. B., 1992, “The Large Channel,” Proc. 23rd ATTC Conf., New Orleans.
40.
Shen
,
Y. T.
,
Remmers
,
K. D.
, and
Jiang
,
C. W.
,
1997
, “
Effects of Ship Hull and Propeller on Rudder Cavitation
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
41
, pp.
172
180
.
41.
Cordier, S., Legrand, F., and Pinard, J. C., 1997, “Hull and Shaft Wake Interaction,” Proc. Propeller/Shafting’97 Sym., Virginia Beach, VA, pp. 19-1–19-17.
42.
Chorin
,
A. J.
,
1967
, “
A Numerical Solution for Solving Incompressible Viscous Flow Problems
,”
J. Comp. Physics
,
2
, pp.
12
26
.
43.
Larsson, L. (ed.), 1980, Proc. SSPA-ITTC Workshop on Ship Boundary Layers 1980, SSPA, Goteborg, Sweden, Report. No. 90.
44.
Roache, P. J., 1998, Verification and Validation in Computational Science and Engineering, Hermosa Publishers, Albuquerque, NM.
45.
AIAA, 1998, Guide for the Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations, G-077-1998.
46.
Stern, F., Wilson, R., Coleman, H., and Paterson, E., 1999, “Verification and Validation,” IIHR Report No. 407, The Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City.
47.
Gorski, J. J., 2001, “Marine Vortices and Their Computation,” Proc. NATO RTO Symposium on Advanced Flow Management, Loen, Norway.
48.
Haussling, H. J., Miller, R. W., and Coleman, R. M., 1997, “Computation of High-Speed Turbulent Flow About a Ship Model with a Transom Stern,” 1997 ASME Fluids Eng. Div. Summer Mtg., FEDSM97-3398.
49.
Chen, H.-C., and Huang, E., 1998, “Validation of a Chimera RANS Method for Transient Flows Induced by a Full-Scale Berthing Ship,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington DC, pp. 948–963.
50.
Lin, C.-W., and Percival, S., 2000, “Free Surface Viscous Flow Computation Around a Transom Stern Ship by Chimera Overlapping Scheme,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydro., Val de Reuil, France.
51.
Hino, T., 1998, “Navier-Stokes Computations of Ship Flows on Unstructured Grids,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington DC, pp. 463–475.
52.
Lohner, R., Yang, C., and Onate, E., 1998, “Viscous Free Surface Hydrodynamics Using Unstructured Grids,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Wash. DC, pp. 476–490.
53.
Hyams, D. G., Sreenivas, K., Sheng, C., Nichols, S., Taylor, L., Briley, W. R., Marcum, D. L., and Whitfield, D. L., 2000, “An Unstructured Multielement Solution Algorithm for Complex Geometry Hydrodynamic Simulations,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydro., Val de Reuil, France.
54.
Baldwin, B. S., and Lomax, H., 1978, “Thin Layer Approximation and Algebraic Model for Separated Turbulent Flows,” AIAA Paper No. 78-257.
55.
Spalart, P. R., and Allmaras, S. R., 1994, “A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flows,” La Recherche Aerospatiale, Vol. 1.
56.
Svennberg, S. U., 2000, “A Test of Turbulence Models for Steady Flows Around Ships,” Proc. Gothenburg 2000 A Workshop on Num. Ship Hydro., Goteborg, Sweden.
57.
Deng, G. B., and Visonneau, M., 2000, “Comparison of Explicit Algebraic Stress Models and Second-Order Turbulence Closures for Steady Flows around the KVLCC2 Ship at Model and Full Scales,” Proc. Gothenburg 2000 A Workshop on Num. Ship Hydro., Goteborg, Sweden.
58.
Kim, S.-E., 2000, “Reynolds Stress Transport Modeling of Turbulent Shear Flow Past a Modern VLCC Hull Form,” Proc. Gothenburg 2000 A Workshop on Num. Ship Hydro., Goteborg, Sweden.
59.
Bet, F., Hanel, D., and Sharma, S., 1998, “Numerical Simulation of Ship Flow by a Method of Artificial Compressibility,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington DC, pp. 173–182.
60.
Chun, H. H., Park, I. R., and Lee, S. K., 2000, “Analysis of Turbulence Free-Surface Flow around Hulls in Shallow Water Channel by a Level-set Method,” Proc. 23rd Symp. Naval Hydro., Val de Reuil, France.
61.
Dommermuth, D., Innis, G., Luth, T., Novikov, E., Schlageter, E., and Talcott, J., 1998, “Numerical Simulation of Bow Waves,” Proc. 22nd Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington DC, pp. 508–521.
62.
Cura Hochbaum, A., and Vogt, M., 2000, “Flow and Resistance Prediction for a Container Ship,” Proc. Gothenburg 2000 A Workshop on Num. Ship Hydro., Goteborg, Sweden.
63.
Sato
,
Y.
,
Miyata
,
H.
, and
Sato
,
T.
,
1999
, “
CFD Simulation of 3-Dimensional Motion of a Ship in Waves: Application to an Advancing Ship in Regular Head Waves
,”
J. Mar. Science Tech.
,
4
, pp.
108
116
.
64.
Ju
,
S.
, and
Patel
,
V. C.
,
1991
, “
Stern Flows at Full-Scale Reynolds Numbers
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
35
, pp.
101
113
.
65.
Subrami
,
A. K.
,
Paterson
,
E. G.
, and
Stern
,
F.
,
2000
, “
CFD Calculation of Sinkage and Trim
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
44
, pp.
59
82
.
66.
Stern
,
F.
,
Kim
,
H. T.
,
Patel
,
V. C.
, and
Chen
,
H. C.
,
1988
, “
A Viscous Flow Approach to the Computation of Propeller-Hull Interaction
,”
J. Ship Res.
,
32
, pp.
246
262
.
67.
Abdel-Maksoud, M., Rieck, K., and Menter, F. R., 2000, “Unsteady Numerical Investigation of the Turbulent Flow Around the Container Ship Model (KCS) With and Without Propeller,” Proc. Gothenburg 2000 A Workshop on Num. Ship Hydro., Goteborg, Sweden.
68.
Executive Committee for the Project of Ship Boundary Layer Measurements, Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, 1971, “Measurements of Boundary Layers of Ships,” Reports of Research Int. Appl. Mech., Kyushu Univ., Vol. XIX, No. 63, pp. 125–186.
69.
Reed, A., M., and Day, W. G., 1978, “Wake Scale Effects on a Twin-Screw Displacement Ship,” Proc. 12th Symp. Naval Hydro., Washington, pp. 225–247.
70.
Patel
,
V. C.
,
1998
, “
Perspective: Flow at High Reynolds Number and Over Rough Surfaces—Achilles Heel of CFD
,”
J. Fluids Eng.
,
120
, pp.
434
444
.
71.
Paterson, E. et al., 1996, “Near- and Far-Field CFD for a Naval Combatant Including Thermal-Stratification and Two-Fluid Modeling,” Proc. 21st Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, Trondheim, Norway, pp. 392–407.
72.
Haussling, H. J., and Gorski, J. J., 1995, “Computation of Contaminated Nonlinear Free-Surface Flow about a Series 60 Hull,” CARDIVNSWC-TR-95/037.
You do not currently have access to this content.