Norwegian waters have been a main arena for development of subsea pipeline technology over the last 25 yr. The gas transportation systems from Norway to continental Europe comprise the largest and longest subsea pipelines in the world. The challenges of pipeline projects in and from Norwegian waters include large water depths, large diameters, long distances, uneven seabed, rocky landfalls, and hostile environmental conditions, all within strict requirements for safety, regularity, cost efficiency, and environmental impact. This paper provides an overview of the technology developments performed in this period, initially focusing on ability to cross the deep waters of the Norwegian trench by large-diameter pipelines, then on subsea design aspects such as stability, free span design, and mapping technology, and in recent years also on improvements in transportation efficiency, cost reductions, and operational issues. The paper is based on a Plenary Lecture presented at the 1998 OMAE Conference in Lisbon, Portugal. [S0892-7219(00)00601-4]

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