There are many natural processes and technological applications that involve the solidification of a binary solution saturating a porous matrix. Some of them are: natural freezing and artificial freezing (for construction purposes) of soil, oil exploration in cold regions, and processing and preservation of food. This paper presents the results of a fundamental study of freezing of a binary salt solution saturating a packed bed. An aqueous sodium chloride solution (of noneutectic composition) constituted the binary solution and spherical glass beads constituted the packed bed. The freezing was initiated at one of the vertical walls of a rectangular cavity. The temperature distributions in the solid, mush, and liquid regions were recorded using thermocouples. The concentration of salt was determined using a sample withdrawal technique in conjunction with a refractometer and a calibration chart. There was buoyancy-driven convective flow generated and sustained by the thermal and solutal gradients. The effect of this flow on the freezing process was significant. The morphology of the freezing fronts, the temperature and salt concentration profiles, and the rate of freezing were all influenced by the flow. Even in experiments with an initial superheat of 10°C, it was found that the effect of flow was considerable. For even though the fluid flows through the interstitial spaces in the porous matrix, the permeability was large for balls of 0.5-in. diameter. With a superheat of 20°C, the convection was vigorous and the rate of freezing was retarded considerably. The salt rejected during freezing was redistributed by the flow. At later times, a stable solute-rich region formed at the bottom of test cell where the concentration decreased with height. The amount of salt rejected was directly influenced by the rate of freezing, which in turn was controlled by the superheat and the permeability of packed bed.

1.
Cao
, and
Poulikakos
D.
,
1991
, “
Freezing of A Binary Alloy Saturating A Packed Bed of Spheres
,” AIAA
Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer
, Vol.
5
, No.
1
, pp.
46
53
.
2.
Choi, J., and Viskanta, R., 1992, “Freezing of Aqueous Sodium Chloride Solution Saturated Packed Bed From Above,” ASME HTD-Vol. 206-2, Topics in Heat Transfer, Vol. II eds. M. Toner et al., pp. 159–166.
3.
Chellaiah
S.
,
Hong
T.
, and
Singh
H.
,
1993
, “
A Study of the Freezing of Binary Solutions Saturating A Porous Matrix
,”
Warme-und Stoffubertragung
, Vol.
29
, pp.
117
123
.
4.
Giakoumakis
S. G.
,
1994
, “
A Model for Predicting Coupled Heat and Mass Transfers in Unsaturated Partially Frozen Soil
,”
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
, Vol.
15
, pp.
163
171
.
5.
Huppert
H. E.
,
1990
, “
The Fluid Mechanics of Solidification
,”
Journal of Fluid Mechanics
, Vol.
212
, pp.
209
240
.
6.
Kececiloglu
I.
, and
Rubinsky
B.
,
1989
, “
A Continuum Model for the Propagation of Discrete Phase Change Fronts in Porous Media in the Presence of Coupled Heat Flow, Fluid Flow, and Species Transport Processes
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
32
, pp.
1111
1130
.
7.
M. W. Kellog Company, 1972, “Saline Water Conversion Engineering Data Book,” Office of Saline Water Report, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.
8.
Lunardini, V. J., 1981, Heat Transfer in Cold Climates, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, NY.
9.
Maples
A. L.
, and
Poirier
D. R.
,
1984
, “
Convection in the Two Phase Zone of Solidifying Alloys
,”
Metallurgical Transactions B
, Vol.
15B
, pp.
163
172
.
10.
ME Staff
,
1983
, “
Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage
,”
Mechanical Engineering
, ASME, Vol.
3
, pp.
28
34
.
11.
Okada, M., and Murakami, M., 1990, “Solidification of Porous Media Saturated with Aqueous Solution in A Rectangular Cell,” Proceedings of the 27th National Heat Transfer Symposium of Japan, Vol. 1, pp. 241–243.
12.
Okada, M., Matsumoto, K., Murakami, M., and Yabushita, Y., 1991, “Solidification of Porous Media Saturated with Aqueous Solution in A Rectangular Cell,” Proceedings of the 28th National Heat Transfer Symposium of Japan, Vol. 1, pp. 304–306.
13.
Perry, H., and Chilton, C. H., 1973, Chemical Engineer’s Handbook, McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., New York, NY.
14.
Rubinsky, B., 1986, “Recent Advances in Cryopreservation of Biological Organs and in Cryosurgery,” Proceedings of VIIIth International Heat Transfer Conference, pp. 307–315.
15.
Sanger, F. J., 1968, “Ground Freezing in Construction,” ASCE Mech. Found. Div., Vol. 94, pp. 131–158.
16.
Scheidegger, A. E., 1974, The Physics of Flow through Porous Media, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
17.
Song
M.
,
Choi
J.
, and
Viskanta
R.
,
1993
, “
Upward Solidification of A Binary Solution Saturated Porous Medium
,”
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
, Vol.
36
, pp.
3687
3695
.
18.
Viskanta, R., 1991, “Phase Change Heat Transfer in Porous Media,” presented at Third International Symposium on Cold Regions Heat Transfer, June 11-14, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AL.
19.
Yao, L. S., and Prusa, J., 1989, “Melting and Freezing,” Advances in Heat Transfer, eds., T. F. Irvine and J. P. Hartnett, Academic Press Inc, Vol. 19, pp. 1–95.
20.
Yang
C. H.
,
Rastogi
S. K.
, and
Poulikakos
D.
,
1993
, “
Solidification of A Binary Mixture Saturating An Inclined Bed of Packed Spheres
,”
International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
, Vol.
14
, pp.
268
278
.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.