Small-scale indentation and floe-splitting experiments were conducted on columnar ice floes of various sizes and at different speeds. During low-speed indentation (0.2–8 mm s−1), the ice floes always split apart, while at higher indentation speeds (> 100 mm s−1) they did not. The reason is attributed to differences in the process of deformation and failure. At low speed, a large zone of microcracked ice forms in front of the indentor. Development of compressive stresses in the microcracked ice zone leads to buildup of transverse forces that drive crack propagation. These zones of microcracked ice are not observed during high-speed indentation. Rather, the ice fails by continuous crushing. The theoretical effective pressure required to split an ice floe, as predicted by Bhat (1988), agrees to some extent with those measured during experiments.

1.
Bentley, D. L., 1988, “Fracture of Freshwater and Urea Model Ice,” dissertation, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY.
2.
Bentley
D. L.
,
Dempsey
J. P.
,
Sodhi
D. S.
, and
Wei
Y.
,
1989
, “
Fracture Toughness of Columnar Freshwater Ice from Large-Scale DCB Tests
,”
Cold Regions Science and Technology
, Vol.
17
, pp.
7
20
.
3.
Bhat
S. U.
,
1988
, “
Analysis for Splitting of Ice Floes During Summer Impact
,”
Cold Regions Science and Technology
, Vol.
5
, No.
1
, pp.
53
63
.
4.
Bhat
S. U.
,
Choi
S. K.
,
Wierzbicki
T.
, and
Karr
D. G.
,
1991
, “
Failure Analysis of Impacting Ice Floes
,”
ASME JOURNAL OF OFFSHORE MECHANICS AND ARCTIC ENGINEERING
, Vol.
113
, pp.
171
178
.
5.
Croasdale, K. R., 1985, “Recent Developments in Ice Mechanics and Ice Loads,” Behavior of Offshore Structures, Elsevier Science Publishers B. V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 53–74.
6.
Danielewicz, B. W., and Cornet, S., 1984, “Ice Forces on Hans Island, 1983,” Project No. 202, Arctic Petroleum Operators’ Association, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
7.
Danielewicz, B. W., and Metge, M., 1981, “Ice Forces on Hans Island, August 1980,” Project No. 180, Arctic Petroleum Operators’ Association, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
8.
Danielewicz, B. W., and Metge, M., 1982, “Ice Forces on Hans Island, 1981,” Project No. 181, Arctic Petroleum Operators’ Association, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
9.
Danielewicz, B. W., Metge, M., and Dunwoody, A. B., 1983, “On Estimating Large-Scale Ice Forces from Deceleration of Ice Floes,” Proceedings, 7th Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, Espoo, Finland, Vol. 4, pp. 537–546.
10.
Hibbit, Karlsson, and Sorenson, Inc., 1989, ABAQUS (Version 4.9) User Manual, Providence, RI.
11.
Jaeger, J. C., and Cook, N. G. W., 1979, Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, Chapman and Hall, London, U.K., 3rd Edition.
12.
Palmer
A. C.
,
Goodman
D. J.
,
Ashby
M. F.
,
Evans
A. G.
,
Hutchinson
J. W.
, and
Ponter
A. R. S.
,
1983
, “
Fracture and Its Role in Determining Ice Forces on Structures
,”
Annals of Glaciology
, Vol.
4
, pp.
216
221
.
13.
Sodhi, D. S., 1991a, “Ice-Structure Interaction During Indentation Tests.” presented at the IUTAM/IAHR Symposium on Ice-Structure Interaction, St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada, August 14-17, 1989, Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
14.
Sodhi, D. S., 1991b, “Effective Pressures Measured During Indentation Tests in Freshwater Ice,” Proceedings, 6th International Cold Regions Engineering Conference, Hanover, NH, ASCE Publications, New York, NY, pp. 619–627.
15.
Sodhi, D. S., 1991c, “Small-Scale Experiments on Splitting of Ice Floes,” Proceedings, 10th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering, Vol. IV, pp. 171–175.
16.
Sodhi, D. S., 1992, “Ice-Structure Interaction with Segmented Indentors,” Proceedings, IAHR Ice Symposium, 1992, Banff, Alberta, Canada, Vol. 2, pp. 909–929.
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.