The coefficients of static and kinetic friction of sea ice on unfrozen beach gravel were calculated from measurements made while dragging two large blocks of sea ice (approximate weights 23,300 and 26,400 lb (10,600 and 12,000 kg)) in short increments up a sloping beach surface. The results of 36 separate experiments yielded values of the coefficients in static and kinetic friction of μs = 0.50 and μk = 0.39, respectively. These values should be applicable to calculations of the forces required to drive an ice sheet on shore during an ice push event.

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