Wave force coefficient variability for cylinders, from wave to wave in a train of periodic waves, has been shown to be dependent on the phase of the force record relative to the ambient flow. The phase varies due to vortex shedding, but the maximum force is approximately constant as seen from this work and the work of other investigators. Thus, the maximum force coefficient is tightly organized according to the Keulegan-Carpenter number and scatter is seen in the phase angle versus Keulegan-Carpenter number. On the other hand, both Cd and Cm have scatter due to these phase differences from wave to wave. For unknown reasons, even when averaged over several wave cycles there is scatter in the results for Cd and Cm. This investigation shows that the maximum force coefficients for a heavily roughened vertical cylinder are tightly arranged according to the Keulegan-Carpenter number and the period parameter. Furthermore, the phase angle is similarly much more organized than for the smooth cylinder.

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