The quantities of leak rate through sealing systems are subjected to strict regulations because of the global concern on radiative materials. The maximum tolerated leak is becoming a design criterion in pressure vessel design codes, and the leak rate for an application under specific conditions is required to be estimated with reasonable accuracy. In this respect, experimental and theoretical studies are conducted to characterize gasket and packing materials to predict leakage. The amount of the total leak is the summation of the permeation leak through the sealing material and the interfacial leak generated between the sealing element and its mating surfaces. Unfortunately, existing models used to predict leakage do not separate these two types of leaks. This paper deals with a study based on experimental testing that quantifies the amount of these two types of leaks in bolted gasketed joints and packed stuffing boxes. It shows the contribution of interfacial leak for low and high contact surface stresses and the influence of the surface finish of 0.8 and 6.3 μm (32 and 250 μin) resulting from phonographic grooves in the case of a bolted flange joint. The results indicate that most leakage is interfacial, reaching 99% at the low stress while interfacial leak is of the same order of magnitude of permeation leak at high stresses reaching 10−6 and 10−8 mg/s in both packing and gaskets, respectively. Finally, particular focus is put on the technique of precompression to improve material sealing tightness.

References

References
1.
Lasseux
,
D.
,
Jolly
,
P.
,
Jannot
,
Y.
, and
Omnes
,
E. S. B.
,
2011
, “
Permeability Measurement of Graphite Compression Packings
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
133
(
4
), p.
041401
.
2.
Schaaf
,
M.
,
Klenk
,
T.
,
Vogel
,
R.
, and
Bartonicek
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Tightness Characteristics of Packings
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2005-71471.
3.
Ueda
,
T.
, and
Fujiwara
,
M.
,
1997
, “
Improved Gland Packings for Volatile Fluids
,”
15th International Conference on Fluid Sealing
,
Maastricht, NL
,
Sept. 16–18
, pp.
145
158
.
4.
Kockelmann
,
H.
,
Bartonicek
,
J.
,
Roos
,
E.
,
Hahn
,
R.
, and
Ottens
,
W.
,
2009
, “
Long Term Behaviour of Stuffing Box Packings Under the Influence of Fluids at High Temperature
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2009-77059.
5.
Kazeminia
,
M.
, and
Bouzid
,
A.
,
2018
, “
Leak Prediction Through Porous Compressed Packing Rings: A Comparison Study
,”
Int. J. Pressure Vessels Piping
,
166
, pp.
1
8
.
6.
Kazeminia
,
M.
, and
Bouzid
,
A.
,
2017
, “
Evaluation of Leakage Through Graphite-Based Compression Packing Rings
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
139
(
1
), p.
011602
.
7.
Roe
,
M.
, and
Torrance
,
A.
,
2008
, “
The Surface Failure and Wear of Graphite Seals
,”
J. Tribol. Int.
,
41
(
11
), pp.
1002
1008
.
8.
Bouzid
,
H.
,
Derenne
,
M.
,
El-Rich
,
M.
, and
Yves
,
B.
,
2004
, “
Effect of Flange Rotation and Gasket Width on Leakage Behavior of Bolted Flanged Joints
,”
Weld. Res. Council Bull.
,
496
, pp.
1
23
.
9.
Ochoński
,
W.
,
1988
, “
Radial Stress Distribution and Friction Forces in a Soft-Packed Stuffing-Box Seal
,”
J. Tribol. Int.
,
21
(
1
), pp.
31
38
.
10.
Denny
,
D.
,
1957
, “
A Force Analysis of the Stuffing-Box Seal
,” The Fluid Engineering Centre, Harlow, UK.
11.
Geoffroy
,
S.
, and
Prat
,
M.
,
2004
, “
On the Leak Through a Spiral-Groove Metallic Static Ring Gasket
,”
ASME J. Fluids Eng.
,
126
(
1
), pp.
48
54
.
12.
Saeed
,
H. A.
,
Izumi
,
S.
,
Sakai
,
S.
,
Haruyama
,
S.
,
Nagawa
,
M.
, and
Noda
,
H.
,
2008
, “
Development of New Metallic Gasket and Its Optimum Design for Leakage Performance
,”
J. Solid Mech. Mater. Eng.
,
2
(
1
), pp.
105
114
.
13.
Yanagisawa
,
T.
,
Sanada
,
M.
,
Tanoue
,
H.
,
Koga
,
T.
, and
Hirabayashi
,
H.
,
1990
, “
Fundamental Study of the Sealing Performance of a C-Shaped Metal Seal
,”
Second International Symposium on Fluid Sealing
,
La Baule, France
,
Sept. 18–20
, pp.
389
398
.
14.
Pérez-Ràfols
,
F.
,
Larsson
,
R.
, and
Almqvist
,
A.
,
2016
, “
Modelling of Leakage on Metal-to-Metal Seals
,”
J. Tribol. Int.
,
94
, pp.
421
7
.
15.
Boqin
,
G.
,
Ye
,
C.
, and
Dasheng
,
Z.
,
2007
, “
Prediction of Leakage Rates Through Sealing Connections With Nonmetallic Gaskets
,”
Chin. J. Chem. Eng.
,
15
(
6
), pp.
837
841
.
16.
Kockelmann
,
H.
, and
Hahn
,
R.
,
2006
, “
High Grade Performance Proof on Gaskets for Bolted Flange Connections With Organic Fluids
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2006-ICPVT-11-93634.
17.
Arghavani
,
J.
,
Derenne
,
M.
, and
Marchand
,
L.
,
2003
, “
Effect of Surface Characteristics on Compressive Stress and Leakage Rate in Gasketed Flanged Joints
,”
Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol.
,
21
(
10–11
), pp.
713
732
.
18.
Grine
,
L.
, and
Bouzid
,
A.-H.
,
2011
, “
Correlation of Gaseous Mass Leak Rates Through Micro-and Nanoporous Gaskets
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
133
(
2
), p.
021402
.
19.
Grine
,
L.
, and
Bouzid
,
A.-H.
,
2013
, “
Prediction of Leak Rates Through Porous Gaskets at High Temperature
,”
ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.
,
135
(
2
), p.
0213021
.
20.
Schaaf
,
M.
,
Schoeckle
,
F.
, and
Bartonicek
,
J.
,
2008
, “
Concept for the Guarantee of the Integrity of Bolted Flanged Connections in a German Nuclear Power Plant
,”
ASME
Paper No. PVP2008-61530.
You do not currently have access to this content.