The advanced lead fast reactor European demonstrator (ALFRED) is a European research initiative into the framework of the Generation IV International Forum facilities. ALFRED is a scaled down reactor compared to the industrial prototype European lead fast reactor proposed in lead-cooled European advanced demonstration reactor. It has a relatively low power (125 MWe) with a compact design to reduce the cost but maintaining its representativeness and it is cooled by pure lead. One of the open issues is linked to the neutron flux in-core monitoring system because of the harshness of the environment the detectors should be installed in, due to high temperatures, and the neutron-gamma radiation field levels. Monte Carlo simulation is a possible way of facing the problem, reproducing into a virtual world the reactor core, the surrounding environment and radiation interactions. In previous works, neutron spectra and gamma doses at possible detectors' locations in ALFRED were retrieved, with consideration on the applicability of each suitable device currently available. Fission chambers (FCs) were found to be exploited at reactor start-up and intermediate power range. Prompt self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) seemed to be the best solution to monitor the reactor full power, becoming the main research target: their effective applicability on field has to be demonstrated. SPND applications do not include reactor control purposes usually. Moreover, their irradiation experience involved thermal and epithermal neutron spectra monitoring, mainly. The lack of data when SPNDs sense fast neutron fluxes in terms of prompt-response pushed the authors to deepen the study in such direction. The work herein shows the mathematical approach based on Monte Carlo simulation of SPNDs by the Monte Carlo N-particle eXtended code (MCNPX), so as to study the capability of the code in reproducing real devices' signals while experimented on field. Such a verification turned out to be the preliminary stage for studying new concepts for SPNDs, in terms of sensitive materials and geometries, envisaging the possibility for designing, prototyping, and testing new devices in suitable fast neutron-flux facilities.

References

References
1.
GIF
,
2016
, “Generation IV International Forum,” Generation IV International Forum, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.gen-4.org/gif/jcms/c_9260/public
2.
Salvatores
,
M.
, and
Palmiotti
,
G.
,
2011
, “
Radioactive Waste Partitioning and Transmutation Within Advanced Fuel Cycles: Achievements and Challenges
,”
Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys.
,
66
(
1
), pp.
144
166
.
3.
SCK-CEN
,
2017
, “
MYRRHA: An Accelerator Driven System (ADS)
,” SCK-CEN, Brussels, Belgium, accessed July 18, 2017, http://myrrha.sckcen.be/en/MYRRHA/ADS
4.
Alemberti
,
A.
,
2012
, “
ELFR, The European Lead Fast Reactor Design, Safety Approach and Safety Characteristics
,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.iaea.org/NuclearPower/Downloadable/Meetings/2012/2012-03-19-03-23-TM-NPTD/14_TM-Safety-Dresden_Italy_Alemberti.pdf
5.
LEADER
,
2010
, “
Lead-Cooled European Advanced Demonstration Reactor
,” European Commission, Brussels, Belgium, accessed July 18, 2017, https://www.leader-fp7.eu
6.
Lepore
,
L.
,
Remetti
,
R.
, and
Cappelli
,
M.
,
2014
, “
Fast Neutron-Flux Monitoring Instrumentation for Lead Fast Reactors: A Preliminary Study on Fission Chamber Performances
,”
ASME
Paper No. ICONE22-31011.
7.
Lepore
,
L.
,
Remetti
,
R.
, and
Cappelli
,
M.
,
2015
, “
Evaluation of the Current Fast Neutron Flux Monitoring Instrumentation Applied to LFR Demonstrator Alfred: Capabilities and Limitations
,”
23rd International Conference on Nuclear Engineering
(ICONE), Chiba, Japan, May 17–21, Paper No.
ICONE23-1447
.http://openarchive.enea.it/handle/10840/7600?show=full
8.
Lepore
,
L.
,
Remetti
,
R.
, and
Cappelli
,
M.
,
2016
, “
On Capabilities and Limitations of Current Fast Neutron Flux Monitoring Instrumentation for the Demo LFR ALFRED
,”
ASME J. Nucl. Eng. Radiat. Sci.
,
2
(
4
), p.
041002
.
9.
Briesmeister
,
J. F.
,
1993
, “
MCNP: A General Purpose Monte Carlo Code for Neutron and Photon Transport
,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, Technical Report No.
LA-12625
.http://www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/18/044/18044302.pdf
10.
Angelone
,
M.
,
Klix
,
M.
,
Pillon
,
M.
,
Batistoni
,
P.
,
Fischer
,
U.
, and
Santagata
,
A.
,
2014
, “
Development of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors for Neutron Flux Monitoring in HCLL and HCPB ITER-TBM
,”
Fusion Eng. Des.
,
89
(
9–10
), pp.
2194
2198
.
11.
Bignan
,
G.
,
Guyard
,
J.
,
Blandin
,
C.
, and
Petitcolas
,
H.
,
1996
, “
Direct Experimental Tests and Comparison Between Sub-Miniature Fission Chambers and SPND for Fixed In-Core Instrumentation of LWR
,”
In-Core Instrumentation and Core Assessment
, Nuclear Energy Agency, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
12.
Guru
,
S.
, and
Wehe
,
D.
,
1992
, “
Instantaneous Flux Measurements Using the Background Signal of the Rhodium Self-Powered Neutron Detector
,”
Ann. Nucl. Energy
,
19
(
4
), pp.
203
215
.
13.
Blandin
,
C.
, and
Breaud
,
S.
,
2001
, “
Selective and Prompt Self-Powered Neutron Detectors for Characterization of Mixed Radiation Fields in Reactors
,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No.
STP1398
.https://www.astm.org/DIGITAL_LIBRARY/STP/PAGES/STP13656S.htm
14.
Todt
,
W.
,
1996
, “
Characteristics of Self-Powered Neutron Detectors Used in Power Reactors
,”
In-Core Instrumentation and Core Assessment
, Nuclear Energy Agency, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
15.
Seidenkranz
,
T.
,
Bohme
,
K.
,
Kagemann
,
U.
,
Maletti
,
R.
, and
Stein
,
H.
,
2016
, “
Experiences With Prompt Self-Powered Detectors in Nuclear Reactors OP WWER Type
,” International Atomic Energy Agency, Brussels, Belgium, accessed July 18, 2017, http://www.iaea.org/inis/collection/NCLCollectionStore/_Public/18/009/18009870.pdf
16.
Thermocoax
,
2015
, “
Nuclear SPND
,” THERMOCOAX SAS, Suresnes, France, accessed July 18, 2017, http://www.thermocoax.com/market/thermal-sensing-solutions-for-nuclear\-industry/nuclear-spnd/
17.
Thermocoax
,
2015
, private communication.
18.
Chadwick
,
M. B.
,
Obložinský
,
P.
,
Herman
,
M.
,
Greene
,
N. M.
,
McKnight
,
R. D.
,
Smith
,
D. L.
,
Young
,
P. G.
,
MacFarlane
,
R. E.
,
Hale
,
G. M.
,
Frankle
,
S. C.
,
Kahler
,
A. C.
,
Kawano, T., Little
,
R. C.
,
Madland
,
D. G.
,
Moller
,
P.
,
Mosteller
,
R. D.
,
Page
,
P. R.
,
Talou
,
P.
,
Trellue
,
H.
,
White
,
M. C.
,
Wilson
,
W. B.
,
Arcilla
,
R.
,
Dunford
,
C. L.
,
Mughabghab
,
S. F.
,
Pritychenko
,
B.
,
Rochman
,
D.
,
Sonzogni
,
A. A.
,
Lubitz
,
C. R.
,
Trumbull
,
T. H.
,
Weinman
,
J. P.
,
Brown
,
D. A.
,
Cullen
,
D. E.
,
Heinrichs
,
D. P.
,
McNabb
,
D. P.
,
Derrien
,
H.
,
Dunn
,
M. E.
,
Larson
,
N. M.
,
Leal
,
L. C.
,
Carlson
,
A. D.
,
Block
,
R. C.
,
Briggs
,
J. B.
,
Cheng
,
E. T.
,
Huria
,
H. C.
,
Zerkle
,
M. L.
,
Kozier
,
K. S.
,
Courcelle
,
A.
,
Pronyaev
,
V.
, and
van der Marck
,
S. C.
,
2006
, “
ENDF/B-VII.0: Next Generation Evaluated Nuclear Data Library for Nuclear Science and Technology
,”
Nucl. Data Sheets
,
107
(
12
), pp.
2931
3060
.
19.
Ponti
,
G.
,
Palombi
,
F.
,
Abate
,
D.
,
Ambrosino
,
F.
,
Aprea
,
G.
,
Bastianelli
,
T.
,
Beone
,
F.
, and
Bertini
,
R.
,
2014
, “
The Role of Medium Size Facilities in the HPC Ecosystem: The Case of the New CRESCO4 Cluster Integrated in the ENEAGRID Infrastructure
,”
International Conference on High Performance Computing and Simulation
(
HPCS
), Bologna, Italy, July 21–25, pp.
1030
1033
.
You do not currently have access to this content.