During normal operation in Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU®) reactors, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of fuel sheathing is mitigated effectively, in part, using a thin graphite-based coating known as CANDU lubricant (CANLUB). Mechanisms typically proposed for the demonstrated SCC mitigation offered by CANLUB include lubrication and/or chemical interactions. An additional possibility, that was recently suggested, involves the sequestering of iodine through its interaction with alkali metal and/or alkaline earth metal impurities in the CANLUB coating. This possibility is supported by the systematic analysis and testing in this paper, wherein three prevalent impurities (Na, Ca, and Mg) found in CANLUB were incorporated into SCC slotted ring experiments as metal oxides. When the amount of metal oxide (Na2O, CaO, or MgO) matched or exceeded the amount of iodine (6 mmol = 16 mg/cm3), Na2O and CaO protected the rings from corrosion whereas MgO enhanced their corrosion. When Zircaloy-4 sheathing is subjected to mechanical stress, high temperature, and high concentrations of iodine vapor, it is better protected by siloxane coatings than by graphite-CANLUB coatings. Consequently, since metal impurities (Na, Ca, and Mg) are found more abundantly in siloxane coatings than in graphite-CANLUB coatings, Zircaloy-4 slotted rings were coated with graphite-CANLUB containing Na, Ca, and/or Mg at those more abundant concentrations. Since these concentrations remain below 6 mmol, SCC test results suggest that the siloxane's superior adhesion is an essential first step in preventing corrosion induced by 6 mmol of iodine.
The Effect of Alkali Metal and Alkaline Earth Metal Impurities on the Iodine-Induced Corrosion of CANDU Fuel Sheathing
Manuscript received March 31, 2016; final manuscript received June 15, 2017; published online xx xx, xxxx. Assoc. Editor: Brian Ikeda.
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Ferrier, G. A., Kerr, D., Metzler, J., Veryard, E., Farahani, M., Chan, P. K., Daymond, M. R., and Corcoran, E. C. (July 31, 2017). "The Effect of Alkali Metal and Alkaline Earth Metal Impurities on the Iodine-Induced Corrosion of CANDU Fuel Sheathing." ASME. ASME J of Nuclear Rad Sci. October 2017; 3(4): 041004. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4037115
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