The main target of the EUROATOM FP7 project “Fuel Qualification Test for SCWR” is to make significant progress toward the design, analysis, and licensing of a fuel assembly cooled with supercritical water in a research reactor. The program of dedicated Work Package (WP4)-Prequalification was focused on evaluation of general corrosion resistance of three preselected austenitic stainless steels, 08Cr18Ni10Ti, AISI 347H, and AISI 316L, which should be prequalified for application as a cladding material for fuel qualification tests in supercritical water. Therefore, the experiments in support of WP4 concentrated on 2000-hr corrosion exposures in 25-MPa supercritical water (SCW) at two different temperatures 550°C and 500°C dosed with both 150 and 2000 ppb of dissolved oxygen content. Moreover, the water chemistry effect was investigated by conducting tests in 550°C SCW with 1.5 ppm of dissolved hydrogen content. At first, corrosion coupons were exposed for 600, 1400, and 2000 hrs in Joint Research Centre-Institute for Energy and Transport (JRC-IET), VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd. (VTT), and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) autoclaves connected to the recirculation loop, allowing continual water chemistry control during the test. The following examination of exposed specimens consisted of weight-change calculations and detailed macro- and microscopic investigation of oxide layers using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). With respect to general corrosion results, all tested steels showed sufficient corrosion resistance in SCW conditions taking into account the conditions foreseen for future fuel qualification test in the research reactor in CVR Rez. When the results of weight-change calculations were compared for all three materials, it was found that the corrosion resistance increased in the following order: 316L<347H<08Cr18Ni10Ti. Results obtained in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) did not indicate any significant beneficial effect compared to tests in SCW with 150 or 2000 ppb dissolved oxygen content. Additional tests were dedicated to investigation of the surface-finish effect. In these exposures, polished, sand-blasted, and plane-milled surface-finish techniques were investigated. The beneficial effect of surface cold work in particular of sand-blasting was clearly demonstrated.

References

References
1.
Schulenberg
,
T.
,
Starflinger
,
J.
,
Marsault
,
P.
,
Bittermann
,
D.
,
Maráczy
,
C.
,
Laurien
,
E.
,
Lycklama à Nijeholt
,
J. A.
,
Anglart
,
H.
,
Andreani
,
M.
,
Ruzickova
,
M.
, and
Toivonen
,
A.
,
2011
, “
European Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor
,”
Nucl. Eng. Des.
,
241
(
9
), pp. 
3505
3513
. 0029-549310.1016/j.nucengdes.2010.09.039
2.
Ruzickova
,
M.
,
Hajek
,
P.
,
Smida
,
S.
,
Vsolak
,
R.
,
Petr
,
J.
, and
Kysela
,
J.
,
2007
, “
Supercritical Water Loop Design for Corrosion and Water Chemistry Tests Under Irradiation
,”
Nucl. Eng. Technol.
,
40
(
2
), pp. 
127
132
(Special Issue on SCWR).10.5516/NET.2008.40.2.127
3.
Was
,
G.
,
Ampornrat
,
P.
,
Gupta
,
G.
,
Teysseyre
,
S.
,
West
,
E.
,
Allen
,
T.
,
Sridharan
,
K.
,
Tan
,
L.
,
Chen
,
Y.
,
Ren
,
X.
, and
Pister
,
C.
,
2007
, “
Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Cracking in Supercritical Water
,”
J. Nucl. Mater.
,
371
(
1–3
), pp. 
176
201
. 0022-311510.1016/j.jnucmat.2007.05.017
4.
Novotny
,
R.
,
Hähner
,
P.
,
Siegl
,
J.
,
Hausild
,
P.
,
Ripplinger
,
S.
,
Penttilä
,
S.
, and
Toivonen
,
A.
,
2011
, “
Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Supercritical Water Conditions
,”
J. Nucl. Mater.
,
409
(
2
), pp. 
117
123
. 0022-311510.1016/j.jnucmat.2010.09.018
5.
Penttilä
,
S.
,
Toivonen
,
A.
, and
Heikinheimo
,
L.
,
2010
, “
Corrosion Studies of Candidate Materials for European HPLWR
,”
Nucl. Technol.
,
170
(
1
), pp. 
261
271
. 0029-5450
6.
Prokhorov
,
V. I.
, and
Risovanaya
,
F. V.
,
2005
, “
Properties of the 08Cr18Ni10Ti Steel as a Construction Material for Nuclear Reactors
,”
Russian Federation Agency on Atomic Energy, Federal State Unitary Enterprise, State Scientific Centre of Russian Federation, The Research Institute of Atomic Reactors
, Dimitrovgrad, Ulyanovsk Region, Russia.
7.
Spalaris
,
C. N.
,
1963
, “
Finding a Corrosion Resistant Cladding for Superheater Fuels
,”
Nucleonics
,
21
(
9
), pp.
41
49
.
8.
Griess
,
J. C.
,
Martin
,
J. M.
,
Mravca
,
A. E.
,
Impara
,
R. J.
, and
Weems
,
S.
,
1963
, “
Corrosion Effects on BONUS Superheater Materials
,” Task Force on Feasibility of Bonus Reactor Stainless Steel Clad Superheater Materials,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
,
Oak Ridge, TN
, GNEC 257.
9.
Berge
,
P.
,
1997
, “
Importance of Surface Preparation for Corrosion Control in Nuclear Power Stations
,”
Mater. Perform.
,
36
(
11
), pp. 
56
62
. 0094-1492
10.
Ruther
,
W. E.
,
Schlueter
,
R. R.
,
Lee
,
R. H.
, and
Hart
,
R. K.
,
1965
, “
Corrosion Behaviour of Steels and Nickel Alloys in Superheated Steam
,”
NACE—International Corrosion Conference Series
,
NACE
,
Houston, TX
.
11.
ASTM G1-03,
2011
, “
Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning, and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens
,”
ASTM International
,
West Conshohocken, PA
, www.astm.org.
12.
Novotny
,
R.
,
Janik
,
P.
,
Nilsson
,
K. F.
,
Siegl
,
J.
, and
Hausild
,
P.
,
2013
, “
Pre-Qualification of Cladding Materials for SCWR Fuel Qualification Testing Facility
,”
The 6th International Symposium on Supercritical Water-Cooled Reactors ISSCWR-6
,
China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation
,
Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
, Paper No. 13069.
13.
Maekawa
,
T.
,
Kagawa
,
M.
, and
Nakajima
,
N.
,
1968
, “
Corrosion Behaviour of Stainless Steel in High Temperature Water and Superheated Steam
,”
Trans. Jpn. Inst. Metals
,
9
(
2
), pp. 
130
136
.10.2320/matertrans1960.9.130
14.
Ziemniak
,
S. E.
,
Guilmette
,
P. A.
, and
Tunison
,
H. M.
,
2008
, “
Oxidative Dissolution of Nickel Metal in Hydrogenated Hydrothermal Solutions
,”
Corros. Sci.
,
50
(
2
), pp. 
449
462
. 0010-938X10.1016/j.corsci.2007.07.013
You do not currently have access to this content.