Abstract

Nonlinear ultrasonic testing is considered a more promising technique for evaluating closed cracks than conventional ultrasonic testing. However, the mechanism of the generation of nonlinear ultrasonic waves has not been sufficiently explained. We first set up a system to measure the frequency–response characteristics of ultrasonic waves and experimentally investigated the mechanism of second higher-harmonic (HH) wave generation for a fatigue crack. Sweeping the frequencies of incident waves impinging on a fatigue crack introduced to a specimen, we obtained a frequency–response characteristic curve for the crack. From the curve, resonance phenomena resulting from local defect resonance were observed. We then measured the frequency response characteristics of second HH waves using the same system and consequently confirmed that second HH waves resonated when their frequencies corresponded to the eigenfrequencies of the crack. Finally, we theoretically showed that the resonant second HH waves were generated by local defect resonance and nonlinearity.

References

References
1.
Kim
,
J.-Y.
,
Jacobs
,
L. J.
,
Qu
,
J.
, and
Littles
,
J. W.
,
2006
, “
Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Damage in a Nickel-Base Superalloy Using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Waves
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
120
(
3
), pp.
1266
1273
. 10.1121/1.2221557
2.
Ohara
,
Y.
,
Mihara
,
T.
,
Sasaki
,
R.
,
Ogata
,
T.
,
Yamamoto
,
S.
,
Kishimoto
,
Y.
, and
Yamanaka
,
K.
,
2007
, “
Imaging of Closed Cracks Using Nonlinear Response of Elastic Waves at Subharmonic Frequency
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
90
(
1
), p.
011902
. 10.1063/1.2426891
3.
Solodov
,
I. Y.
,
Krohn
,
N.
, and
Busse
,
G.
,
2002
, “
Can: An Example of Nonclassical Acoustic Nonlinearity in Solids
,”
Ultrasonics
,
40
(
1–8
), pp.
621
625
. 10.1016/S0041-624X(02)00186-5
4.
Maruyama
,
T.
,
Saitoh
,
T.
, and
Hirose
,
S.
,
2017
, “
Numerical Study on Sub-Harmonic Generation Due to Interior and Surface Breaking Cracks With Contact Boundary Conditions Using Time-Domain Boundary Element Method
,”
Int. J. Solids Struct.
,
126
, pp.
74
89
. 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2017.07.029
5.
Solodov
,
I.
,
2014
, “
Resonant Acoustic Nonlinearity of Defects for Highly-Efficient Nonlinear Nde
,”
J. Nondestruct. Eval.
,
33
(
2
), pp.
252
262
. 10.1007/s10921-014-0229-9
6.
Nayfeh
,
A.
, and
Nayfeh
,
S.
,
1994
, “
On Nonlinear Modes of Continuous Systems
,”
ASME J. Vib. Acoust.
,
116
(
1
), pp.
129
136
. 10.1115/1.2930388
7.
Jin
,
J.
,
Rivière
,
J.
,
Ohara
,
Y.
, and
Shokouhi
,
P.
,
2018
, “
Dynamic Acousto-Elastic Response of Single Fatigue Cracks With Different Microstructural Features: An Experimental Investigation
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
,
124
(
7
), p.
075303
. 10.1063/1.5036531
8.
Jhang
,
K.-Y.
, and
Kim
,
K.-C.
,
1999
, “
Evaluation of Material Degradation Using Nonlinear Acoustic Effect
,”
Ultrasonics
,
37
(
1
), pp.
39
44
. 10.1016/S0041-624X(98)00045-6
9.
Biwa
,
S.
,
Nakajima
,
S.
, and
Ohno
,
N.
,
2004
, “
On the Acoustic Nonlinearity of Solid–Solid Contact With Pressure-Dependent Interface Stiffness
,”
ASME J. Appl. Mech.
,
71
(
4
), pp.
508
515
. 10.1115/1.1767169
10.
Nayfeh
,
A. H.
, and
Mook
,
D. T.
,
2008
,
Nonlinear Oscillations
,
John Wiley & Sons
,
Hoboken, NJ
.
You do not currently have access to this content.