The objective of this work is to experimentally and numerically evaluate small-scale cryosurgery using an ultrafine cryoprobe. The outer diameter (OD) of the cryoprobe was 550 μm. The cooling performance of the cryoprobe was tested with a freezing experiment using hydrogel at 37 °C. As a result of 1 min of cooling, the surface temperature of the cryoprobe reached −35 °C and the radius of the frozen region was 2 mm. To evaluate the temperature distribution, a numerical simulation was conducted. The temperature distribution in the frozen region and the heat transfer coefficient was discussed.

References

References
1.
Bischof
,
J.
,
Christov
,
K.
, and
Rubinsky
,
B.
,
1993
, “
A Morphological-Study of Cooling Rate Response in Normal and Neoplastic Human Liver-Tissue-Cryosurgical Implications
,”
Cryobiology
,
30
(
5
), pp.
482
492
.10.1006/cryo.1993.1049
2.
Popken
,
F.
,
Seifert
,
J. K.
,
Engelmann
,
R.
,
Dutkowski
,
P.
,
Nassir
,
F.
, and
Junginger
,
T.
,
2000
, “
Comparison of Iceball Diameter and Temperature Distribution Achieved With 3-Mm Accuprobe Cryoprobes in Porcine and Human Liver Tissue and Human Colorectal Liver Metastases in Vitro
,”
Cryobiology
,
40
(
4
), pp.
302
310
.10.1006/cryo.2000.2250
3.
Coleman
,
R. B.
, and
Richardson
,
R. N.
,
2005
, “
A Novel Closed Cycle Cryosurgical System
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
28
(
3
), pp.
412
418
.10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2004.07.021
4.
Forest
,
V.
,
Peoc'h
,
M.
,
Campos
,
L.
,
Guyotat
,
D.
, and
Vergnon
,
J.-M.
,
2006
, “
Benefit of a Combined Treatment of Cryotherapy and Chemotherapy on Tumour Growth and Late Cryo-Induced Angiogenesis in a Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Model
,”
Lung Cancer
,
54
(
1
), pp.
79
86
.10.1016/j.lungcan.2006.05.026
5.
Fredrickson
,
K.
,
Nellis
,
G.
, and
Klein
,
S.
,
2006
, “
A Design Method for Mixed Gas Joule–Thomson Refrigeration Cryosurgical Probes
,”
Int. J. Refrig.
,
29
(
5
), pp.
700
715
.10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2005.12.003
6.
Hewitt
,
P. M.
,
Zhao
,
J.
,
Akhter
,
J.
, and
Morris
,
D. L.
,
1997
, “
A Comparative Laboratory Study of Liquid Nitrogen and Argon Gas Cryosurgery Systems
,”
Cryobiology
,
35
(
4
), pp.
303
308
.10.1006/cryo.1997.2039
7.
Seifert
,
J. K.
,
Gerharz
,
C. D.
,
Mattes
,
F.
,
Nassir
,
F.
,
Fachinger
,
K.
,
Beil
,
C.
, and
Junginger
,
T.
,
2003
, “
A Pig Model of Hepatic Cryotherapy. In Vivo Temperature Distribution During Freezing and Histopathological Changes
,”
Cryobiology
,
47
(
3
), pp.
214
226
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2003.10.007
8.
Rewcastle
,
J. C.
,
Sandison
,
G. A.
,
Saliken
,
J. C.
,
Donnelly
,
B. J.
, and
McKinnon
,
J. G.
,
1999
, “
Considerations During Clinical Operation of Two Commercially Available Cryomachines
,”
J. Surg. Oncol.
,
71
(
2
), pp.
106
111
.10.1002/(SICI)1096-9098(199906)71:2<106::AID-JSO9>3.0.CO;2-Z
9.
Popken
,
F.
,
Land
,
M.
,
Bosse
,
M.
,
Erberich
,
H.
,
Meschede
,
P.
,
Konig
,
D. P.
,
Fischer
,
J. H.
, and
Eysel
,
P.
,
2003
, “
Cryosurgery in Long Bones With New Miniature Cryoprobe: An Experimental in Vivo Study of the Cryosurgical Temperature Field in Sheep
,”
Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.
,
29
(
6
), pp.
542
547
.10.1016/S0748-7983(03)00069-6
10.
Tacke
,
J.
,
Adam
,
G.
,
Haage
,
P.
,
Sellhaus
,
B.
,
Großkortenhaus
,
S.
, and
Günther
,
R. W.
,
2001
, “
MR-Guided Percutaneous Cryotherapy of the Liver: In Vivo Evaluation With Histologic Correlation in an Animal Model
,”
J. Magn. Reson. Imaging
,
13
(
1
), pp.
50
56
.10.1002/1522-2586(200101)13:1<50::AID-JMRI1008>3.0.CO;2-A
11.
Doll
,
N.
,
Meyer
,
R.
,
Walther
,
T.
, and
Mohr
,
F. W.
,
2004
, “
A New Cryoprobe for Intraoperative Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation
,”
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
,
77
(
4
), pp.
1460
1462
.10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01389-4
12.
Takeda
,
H.
,
Maruyama
,
S.
,
Okajima
,
J.
,
Aiba
,
S.
, and
Komiya
,
A.
,
2009
, “
Development and Estimation of a Novel Cryoprobe Utilizing the Peltier Effect for Precise and Safe Cryosurgery
,”
Cryobiology
,
59
(
3
), pp.
275
284
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2009.08.004
13.
Aihara
,
T.
,
Kim
,
J.-K.
,
Suzuki
,
K.
, and
Kasahara
,
K.
,
1993
, “
Boiling Heat Transfer of a Micro-Impinging Jet of Liquid Nitrogen in a Very Slender Cryoprobe
,”
Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer
,
36
(
1
), pp.
169
175
.10.1016/0017-9310(93)80076-7
14.
Maruyama
,
S.
,
Nakagawa
,
K.
,
Takeda
,
H.
,
Aiba
,
S.
, and
Komiya
,
A.
,
2008
, “
The Flexible Cryoprobe Using Peltier Effect for Heat Transfer Control
,”
J. Biomech. Sci. Eng.
,
3
(
2
), pp.
138
150
.10.1299/jbse.3.138
15.
Bénita
,
M.
, and
Condé
,
H.
,
1972
, “
Effects of Local Cooling Upon Conduction and Synaptic Transmission
,”
Brain Res.
,
36
(
1
), pp.
133
151
.10.1016/0006-8993(72)90771-8
16.
Zhang
,
J.-X.
,
Ni
,
H.
, and
Harper
,
R. M.
,
1986
, “
A Miniaturized Cryoprobe for Functional Neuronal Blockade in Freely Moving Animals
,”
J. Neurosci. Methods
,
16
(
1
), pp.
79
87
.10.1016/0165-0270(86)90010-5
17.
Okajima
,
J.
,
Komiya
,
A.
, and
Maruyama
,
S.
,
2010
, “
Boiling Heat Transfer in Small Channel for Development of Ultrafine Cryoprobe
,”
Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow
,
31
(
6
), pp.
1012
1018
.10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2010.08.008
18.
Okajima
,
J.
,
Maruyama
,
S.
,
Takeda
,
H.
,
Komiya
,
A.
, and
Sangkwon
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Cooling Characteristics of Ultrafine Cryoprobe Utilizing Convective Boiling Heat Transfer in Microchannel
,”
Proceedings of the 14th IHTC
,
Washington DC
, Aug. 8–13, Vol.
1
, pp.
297
306
.
19.
Voller
,
V. R.
, and
Swaminathan
,
C. R.
,
1993
, “
Treatment of Discontinuous Thermal Conductivity in Control-Volume Solutions of Phase-Change Problems
,”
Numer. Heat Transfer, Part B
,
24
(
2
), pp.
161
180
.10.1080/10407799308955887
20.
Swaminathan
,
C. R.
, and
Voller
,
V. R.
,
1992
, “
A General Enthalpy Method for Modeling Solidification Processes
,”
MTB
,
23
(
5
), pp.
651
664
.10.1007/BF02649725
21.
Okajima
,
J.
,
Takeda
,
H.
,
Komiya
,
A.
, and
Maruyama
,
S.
,
2008
, “
Possibility of Micro-Cryosurgery Utilizing Cooling Needle
,”
Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Mechanics in Medicine and Biology, Pittsburgh, PA, July 23–25
.
22.
Deng
,
Z.-S.
, and
Liu
,
J.
,
2005
, “
Numerical Simulation of Selective Freezing of Target Biological Tissues Following Injection of Solutions With Specific Thermal Properties
,”
Cryobiology
,
50
(
2
), pp.
183
192
.10.1016/j.cryobiol.2004.12.007
23.
Gage
,
A. A.
, and
Baust
,
J.
,
1998
, “
Mechanisms of Tissue Injury in Cryosurgery
,”
Cryobiology
,
37
(
3
), pp.
171
186
.10.1006/cryo.1998.2115
You do not currently have access to this content.