Consider holding a contemporary laptop. It typically does more than we want: Not only can such a laptop provide powerful number crunching, dazzling graphics, and instant online connections to people across the world, it can also keep one warm with the excess heat it creates. Unless one is trying to use it as an alternative fireplace, it is often not desirable to put a laptop in one's lap. Keeping the ever more powerful future laptops cool illustrates challenges facing nanoelectronics. The key question of how to reduce the power consumption in nanoelectronic devices may have some surprising answers. A common understanding is that a goal to put even more of smaller and smaller transistors in microprocessor implies that a transistor should be the main culprit for the power consumption. However, the situation is more complex. Increasingly, the bottleneck is not just how to process the...

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