Abstract

We present an inexpensive, repeatable, and efficient method of patterning silver nanowires onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a mold-based approach. A micromilling machine is used to prepare an aluminum mold with a raised pattern so that PDMS cured in these molds is imprinted with the design. A solution of silver nanowires and ethanol can then be injected into the pattern. This method can be used to pattern silver nanowires onto PDMS in any two-dimensional (2D) layout, meaning it can be extended to produce a wide range of PDMS/silver nanowire-based sensors and devices. We demonstrate this by the development of two separate patterns. An intricate logo is developed in order to demonstrate the capability of patterning curved and sharp edges, and a strain gauge is developed in order to demonstrate a functional device.

References

References
1.
Yao
,
S.
, and
Zhu
,
Y.
,
2014
, “
Wearable Multifunctional Sensors Using Printed Stretchable Conductors Made of Silver Nanowires
,”
Nanoscale
,
74
, pp.
2345
2352
.10.1039/c3nr05496a
2.
Cui
,
Z.
,
Poblete
,
F. R.
,
Cheng
,
G.
,
Yao
,
S.
,
Jiang
,
X.
, and
Zhu
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Design and Operation of Silver Nanowires Based Flexible and Stretchable Touch Sensors
,”
J. Mater. Res.
,
30
(
1
), pp.
79
85
.10.1557/jmr.2014.347
3.
Xu
,
F.
, and
Zhu
,
Y.
,
2012
, “
Highly Conductive and Stretchable Silver Nanowire Conductors
,”
Adv. Mater.
,
24
(
37
), pp.
5117
5122
.10.1002/adma.201201886
4.
Wu
,
C.
,
Jiu
,
J.
,
Araki
,
T.
,
Koga
,
H.
,
Sekitani
,
T.
,
Wang
,
H.
, and
Suganuma
,
K.
,
2016
, “
Biaxially Stretchable Silver Nanowire Conductive Film Embedded in a Taro Leaf-Templated PDMS Surface
,”
Nanotechnology
,
28
(
1
), p. 01LT01.10.1088/0957-4484/28/1/01LT01
5.
Kim
,
J.
,
Park
,
J.
,
Jeong
,
U.
, and
Park
,
J.-W.
,
2016
, “
Silver Nanowire Network Embedded in Polydimethylsiloxane as Stretchable, Transparent, and Conductive Substrates
,”
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
,
133
(
33
), p.
43830
.10.1002/app.43830
6.
Tang
,
J.
,
Guo
,
H.
,
Zhao
,
M.
,
Yang
,
J.
,
Tsoukalas
,
D.
,
Zhang
,
B.
,
Liu
,
J.
,
Xue
,
C.
, and
Zhang
,
W.
,
2015
, “
Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
5
(
1
), p.
16527
.10.1038/srep16527
7.
Kim
,
J. H.
,
Hwang
,
J.-Y.
,
Hwang
,
H. R.
,
Kim
,
H. S.
,
Lee
,
J. H.
,
Seo
,
J.-W.
,
Shin
,
U. S.
, and
Lee
,
S.-H.
,
2018
, “
Simple and Cost-Effective Method of Highly Conductive and Elastic Carbon Nanotube/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite for Wearable Electronics
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
8
(
1
), p.
1375
.10.1038/s41598-017-18209-w
8.
Myers
,
A. C.
,
Huang
,
H.
, and
Zhu
,
Y.
,
2015
, “
Wearable Silver Nanowires Dry Electrodes for Electrophysiological Sensing
,”
RSC Adv.
,
5
(
15
), pp.
11627
11632
.10.1039/C4RA15101A
9.
Yao
,
S.
,
Myers
,
A.
,
Malhotra
,
A.
,
Lin
,
F.
,
Bozkurt
,
A.
,
Muth
,
J. F.
, and
Zhu
,
Y.
,
2017
, “
A Wearable Hydration Sensor With Conformal Nanowire Electrodes
,”
Adv. Healthcare Mater.
,
6
(
6
), p.
1601159
.10.1002/adhm.201601159
10.
Madaria
,
A. R.
,
Kumar
,
A.
, and
Zhou
,
C.
,
2011
, “
Large Scale, Highly Conductive and Patterned Transparent Films of Silver Nanowires on Arbitrary Substrates and Their Application in Touch Sensors
,”
Nanotechnology
,
22
(
24
), p.
245201
.10.1088/0957-4484/22/24/245201
11.
Ko
,
E.-H.
,
Kim
,
H.-J.
,
Lee
,
S.-M.
,
Kim
,
T.-W.
, and
Kim
,
H.-K.
,
2017
, “
Stretchable Ag Electrodes With Mechanically Tunable Optical Transmittance on Wavy-Patterned PDMS Substrates
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
7
(
1
), p.
46739
.10.1038/srep46739
12.
Tokuno
,
T.
,
Nogi
,
M.
,
Karakawa
,
M.
,
Jiu
,
J.
,
Nge
,
T. T.
,
Aso
,
Y.
, and
Suganuma
,
K.
,
2011
, “
Fabrication of Silver Nanowire Transparent Electrodes at Room Temperature
,”
Nano Res.
,
4
(
12
), pp.
1215
1222
.10.1007/s12274-011-0172-3
13.
Lingnan
,
S.
,
Myers
,
A. C.
,
Adams
,
J. J.
, and
Yong
,
Z.
,
2014
, “
Stretchable and Reversibly Deformable Radio Frequency Antennas Based on Silver Nanowires
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
6
(
6
), pp.
4248
4253
.10.1021/am405972e
14.
Chou
,
N.
,
Kim
,
Y.
, and
Kim
,
S.
,
2016
, “
A Method to Pattern Silver Nanowires Directly on Wafer-Scale PDMS Substrate and Its Applications
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
8
(
9
), pp.
6269
6276
.10.1021/acsami.5b11307
15.
Wang
,
J.
,
Yan
,
C.
,
Kang
,
W.
, and
Lee
,
P. S.
,
2014
, “
High-Efficiency Transfer of Percolating Nanowire Films for Stretchable and Transparent Photodetectors
,”
Nanoscale
,
6
(
18
), pp.
10734
10739
.10.1039/C4NR02462A
16.
Huang
,
G.-W.
,
Xiao
,
H.-M.
, and
Fu
,
S.-Y.
,
2015
, “
Wearable Electronics of Silver-Nanowire/Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Nanocomposite for Smart Clothing
,”
Sci. Rep.
,
5
(
1
), p.
13971
.10.1038/srep13971
17.
Li
,
C.-Y.
, and
Liao
,
Y.-C.
,
2016
, “
Adhesive Stretchable Printed Conductive Thin Film Patterns on PDMS Surface With an Atmospheric Plasma Treatment
,”
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
,
8
(
18
), pp.
11868
11874
.10.1021/acsami.6b02844
18.
Yang
,
C.
,
Wang
,
W.
, and
Li
,
Z.
,
2009
, “
Optimization of Corona-Triggered PDMS-PDMS Bonding Method
,”
Fourth IEEE International Conference of Nano/Micro Engineering and Molecular Systems
, Shenzhen, China, Jan. 5–8, pp.
319
322
.10.1109/NEMS.2009.5068586
19.
Zeng
,
X.-Y.
,
Zhang
,
Q.-K.
,
Yu
,
R.-M.
, and
Lu
,
C.-Z.
,
2010
, “
A New Transparent Conductor: Silver Nanowire Film Buried at the Surface of a Transparent Polymer
,”
Adv. Mater.
,
22
(
40
), pp.
4484
4488
.10.1002/adma.201001811
20.
Giusti
,
G.
,
Langley
,
D.
,
Lagrange
,
M.
,
Collins
,
R.
,
Jimenez
,
C.
,
Brechet
,
Y.
, and
Bellet
,
D.
,
2014
, “
Thermal Annealing Effects on Silver Nanowire Networks
,”
Int. J. Nanotechnol.
,
11
(
9–11
), pp.
785
795
.10.1504/IJNT.2014.063788
You do not currently have access to this content.