The method of ultrashort pulse filamentation induced refractive index modification is employed to inscribe fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in single-mode optical fiber (SMF). Line-by-line index inscription technique is used to write refractive index modulation in the core of SMF. The proposed pulse filamentation based index modification enables controlled and flexible writing of FBGs in optical fibers. Performance analysis of the fabricated FBG has been carried out for temperature, contact force, pressure, and axial strain sensing. The in-fiber FBG exhibits sensing performance very similar to FBGs commercially available to date. Then, the written FBG is engineered to demonstrate highly sensitive contact force sensor.

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