A recent development in cooling and lubrication technology for micromachining processes is the use of atomized spray cooling systems. These systems have been shown to be more effective than traditional methods of cooling and lubrication for extending tool life in micromachining. Typical nozzle systems for atomization spray cooling incorporate the mixing of high-speed gas and an atomized fluid carried by a gas stream. In a two-phase atomization spray cooling system, the atomized fluid can easily access the tool–workpiece interface, removing heat through evaporation and lubricating the region by the spreading of oil micro-droplets. The success of the system is determined in a large part by the nozzle design, which determines the atomized droplet's behavior at the cutting zone. In this study, computational fluid dynamics are used to investigate the effect of nozzle design on droplet delivery to the tool. An eccentric-angle nozzle design is evaluated through droplet flow modeling. A design of simulations methodology is used to study the design parameters of initial droplet velocity, high-speed gas velocity, and the angle change between the two inlets. The system is modeled as a steady-state multiphase system without phase change, and droplet interaction with the continuous phase is dictated in the model by drag forces and fluid surface tension. The Lagrangian method, with a one-way coupling approach, is used to analyze droplet delivery at the cutting zone. Following a factorial experimental design, deionized water droplets and a semisynthetic cutting fluid are evaluated through model simulations. Statistical analysis of responses (droplet velocity at tool, spray thickness, and droplet density at tool) show that droplet velocity is crucial for the nozzle design and that modifying the studied parameters does not change droplet density in the cutting zone.

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