Pulsed laser micro polishing (PLμP) has been shown to be an effective method of polishing micro metallic parts whose surface roughness can approach the feature size. Laser pulse duration in the PLμP process is an important parameter that significantly affects the achievable surface finish. This paper describes the influence of laser pulse duration on surface roughness reduction during PLμP. For this purpose, near-infrared laser pulses have been used to polish Ti6Al4V at three different pulse durations: 0.65 μs, 1.91 μs, and 3.60 μs. PLμP at longer pulse durations resulted in dominating Marangoni convective flows, yet significantly higher reductions in the average surface roughness were observed compared to the short pulse duration regime without convection.

References

References
1.
Martan
,
J.
,
Cibulka
,
O.
, and
Semmar
,
N.
,
2006
, “
Nanosecond Pulse Laser Melting Investigation by IR Radiometry and Reflection-based Methods
,”
Appl. Surf. Sci.
,
253
(
3
), pp.
1170
1177
.10.1016/j.apsusc.2006.01.077
2.
Pendleton
,
W. E.
,
Williams
,
G. P.
,
Williams
,
R. T.
,
Wu
,
J. C.
,
Cvijanovich
,
G. B.
,
Joyce
,
J. L.
, and
McCleaf
,
M.
,
1993
, “
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy of Nickel Surface Features Before and After Rapid Melting by Excimer Laser
,”
AMP J. Technol.
,
3
, pp.
75
84
.
3.
Lamikiz
,
A.
,
Sanchez
,
J. A.
,
de Lacalle
,
L. N. L.
,
del Pozo
,
D.
, and
Etayo
,
J. M.
,
2006
, “
Surface Roughness Improvement using Laser-Polishing Techniques
,”
Adv. Mater. Process. Technol.
,
526
, pp.
217
222
.10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.526.217
4.
Ramos-Grez
,
J. A.
, and
Bourell
,
D. L.
,
2004
, “
Reducing Surface Roughness of Metallic Freeform-Fabricated Parts Using Non-Tactile Finishing Methods
,”
Int. J. Mater. Product Technol.
,
21
(
4
), pp.
297
316
.10.1504/IJMPT.2004.004944
5.
Willenborg
,
E.
,
Wissenbach
,
K.
, and
Poprawe
,
R.
,
2003
, “
Polishing by Laser Radiation
,”
Proceedings of the Second International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing
, pp.
297
300
.
6.
Marella
,
P. F.
,
Tuckerman
,
D. B.
, and
Pease
,
R. F.
,
1989
, “
Modeling of Laser Planarization of Thin Metal-Films
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
,
54
(
12
), pp.
1109
1111
.10.1063/1.100772
7.
Tuckerman
,
D. B.
, and
Weisberg
,
A. H.
,
1986
, “
Planarization of Gold and Aluminum Thin-Films Using a Pulsed Laser
,”
IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett.
,
7
(
1
), pp.
1
4
.10.1109/EDL.1986.26272
8.
Temmler
,
A.
,
Graichen
,
K.
, and
Donath
,
J.
,
2010
, “
Laser Polishing in Medical Engineering; Laser Polishing of Components for Left Ventricular Assist Devices
,”
Laser Tech. J.
,
7
(
2
), pp.
53
57
.10.1002/latj.201090028
9.
Bereznai
,
M.
,
Pelsoczi
,
I.
,
Toth
,
Z.
,
Turzo
,
K.
,
Radnai
,
M.
,
Bor
,
Z.
, and
Fazekas
,
A.
,
2003
, “
Surface Modifications Induced by ns and sub-ps Excimer Laser Pulses on Titanium Implant Material
,”
Biomaterials
,
24
(
23
), pp.
4197
4203
.10.1016/S0142-9612(03)00318-1
10.
Kim
,
Y. G.
,
Ryu
,
J. K.
,
Kim
,
D. J.
,
Kim
,
H. J.
,
Lee
,
S.
,
Cha
,
B. H.
,
Cha
,
H.
, and
Kim
,
C. J.
,
2004
, “
Microroughness Reduction of Tungsten Films by Laser Polishing Technology With a Line Beam
,”
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1
,
43
(
4A
), pp.
1315
1322
.10.1143/JJAP.43.1315
11.
Perry
,
T. L.
,
Werschmoeller
,
D.
,
Li
,
X.
,
Pfefferkorn
,
F. E.
, and
Duffie
,
N. A.
,
2009
, “
Pulsed Laser Polishing of Micro-Milled Ti6Al4V Samples
,”
J. Manuf. Process.
,
11
(
2
), pp.
74
81
.10.1016/j.jmapro.2009.10.001
12.
Perry
,
T. L.
,
Werschmoeller
,
D.
,
Li
,
X. C.
,
Pfefferkorn
,
F. E.
, and
Duffie
,
N. A.
,
2009
, “
The Effect of Laser Pulse Duration and Feed Rate on Pulsed Laser Polishing of Microfabricated Nickel Samples
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
131
(
3
), p.
031002
.10.1115/1.3106033
13.
Perry
,
T. L.
,
Werschmoeller
,
D.
,
Duffie
,
N. A.
,
Li
,
X. C.
, and
Pfefferkorn
,
F. E.
,
2009
, “
Examination of Selective Pulsed Laser Micropolishing on Microfabricated Nickel Samples Using Spatial Frequency Analysis
,”
ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng.
,
131
(2), p.
021002
.10.1115/1.3075874
14.
Vadali
,
M.
,
Ma
,
C.
,
Duffie
,
N. A.
,
Li
,
X.
, and
Pfefferkorn
,
F. E.
,
2012
, “
Pulsed Laser Micro Polishing: Surface Prediction Model
,”
SME J. Manuf. Technol.
,
14
, pp.
307
315
.
15.
Landau
,
L. D.
, and
Lifshits
,
E. M.
,
1959
,
Fluid Mechanics
,
Pergamon Press
,
Oxford, UK
.
16.
Nüsser
,
C.
,
Wehrmann
, I
.
, and
Willenborg
,
E.
,
2011
, “
Influence of Intensity Distribution and Pulse Duration on Laser Micro Polishing
,”
Phys. Procedia
,
12
, pp.
462
471
.10.1016/j.phpro.2011.03.057
17.
Bagno
,
A.
,
Genovese
,
M.
,
Luchini
,
A.
,
Dettin
,
M.
,
Conconi
,
M. T.
,
Menti
,
A. M.
,
Parnigotto
,
P. P.
, and
Di Bello
,
C.
,
2004
, “
Contact Profilometry and Correspondence Analysis to Correlate Surface Properties and Cell Adhesion In Vitro of Uncoated and Coated Ti and Ti6Al4V disks
,”
Biomaterials
,
25
(
12
), pp.
2437
2445
.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.09.018
18.
Borsari
, V
.
,
Giavaresi
,
G.
,
Fini
,
M.
,
Torricelli
,
P.
,
Salito
,
A.
,
Chiesa
,
R.
,
Chiusoli
,
L.
,
Volpert
,
A.
,
Rimondini
,
L.
, and
Giardino
,
R.
,
2005
, “
Physical Characterization of Different-Roughness Titanium Surfaces, With and Without Hydroxyapatite Coating, and Their Effect on Human Osteoblast-Like Cells
,”
J. Biomed. Mater. Res., Part B: Appl. Biomater.
,
75B
(
2
), pp.
359
368
.10.1002/jbm.b.30313
19.
Khang
,
D.
,
Lu
,
J.
,
Yao
,
C.
,
Haberstroh
,
K. M.
, and
Webster
,
T. J.
,
2008
, “
The Role of Nanometer and Sub-Micron Surface Features on Vascular and Bone Cell Adhesion on Titanium
,”
Biomaterials
,
29
(
8
), pp.
970
983
.10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.11.009
20.
Ponsonnet
,
L.
,
Reybier
,
K.
,
Jaffrezic
,
N.
,
Comte
, V
.
,
Lagneau
,
C.
,
Lissac
,
M.
, and
Martelet
,
C.
,
2003
, “
Relationship Between Surface Properties (Roughness, Wettability) of Titanium and Titanium Alloys and Cell Behaviour
,”
Mater. Sci. Eng., C
,
23
(
4
), pp.
551
560
10.1016/S0928-4931(03)00033-X
21.
ISO
,
2006
, “
ISO 11554:2006, Optics and Photonics-Lasers And Laser-Related Equipment-Test Methods for Laser Beam Power, Energy and Temporal Characteristics
,” ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
22.
ISO
,
2005
, “
ISO 11145, Optics and Photonics-Lasers and Laser-Related Equipment-Vocabulary and Symbols
,” ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
23.
ASME
,
2009
, “
Surface Texture: Surface Roughness, Waviness, and Lay; ASME B46.1-2009 (Revision of ASME B46.1-2002)
,” American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York.
24.
ISO
,
2011
, “
ISO 16610-21, Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) – Filtration – Part 21: Linear Profile Filters: Gaussian Filters
,” ISO, Geneva, Switzerland.
25.
Heiple
,
C. R.
, and
Roper
,
J. R.
,
1982
, “
Mechanism for Minor Element Effect on GTA Fusion Zone Geometry
,”
Weld. J.
,
61
(
4
), pp.
97s
102s
.
26.
Kou
,
S.
,
Limmaneevichitr
,
C.
, and
Wei
,
P. S.
,
2011
, “
Oscillatory Marangoni Flow: A Fundamental Study by Conduction-Mode Laser Spot Welding
,”
Weld. J.
,
90
, pp.
229s
240s
.
You do not currently have access to this content.