This article addresses various challenges associated with lithium-ion battery modeling. Lithium-ion batteries have a key role to play in mobile energy storage. One can potentially expand the envelope of lithium-ion battery performance, efficiency, safety, and longevity by using fundamental electrochemistry-based models for battery control. There are clear trade-offs between battery model fidelity and complexity, and a significant literature addressing these trade-offs. Electrochemistry-based battery models can be effective at capturing frequency-domain battery dynamics, especially at lower frequencies. When they are examined in this light, the commonalities between them and equivalent-circuit models become more visible. Constructing lithium-ion battery models certainly takes effort, and so does reducing these models for control design purposes. One important open challenge in lithium-ion battery modeling is the matching of sophisticated battery models to experimental data. Half-cell testing or insertion of a third reference electrode in a fuel cell can separate the contributions of the negative and positive electrodes, and researchers are pursuing other novel technologies for in-cell instrumentation and measurement.
The Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Challenge
Donald Docimo is a doctoral student in the Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University. He earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering from the College of New Jersey in 2012. His research focuses on modeling and control, currently applied to lithium-ion battery systems and smart grid applications.
Mohammad Ghanaatpishe received the B.Sc. degree in mechanical engineering from the Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran, in 2012. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering at the Pennsylvania State University. His research interests include optimal control, modeling, and system identification.
Michael Rothenberger is a doctoral student in the Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department at the Pennsylvania State University. He received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Penn State in 2010 and 2012, respectively. He is currently researching lithium-ion battery diagnostics for hybrid electric and electric vehicle applications.
Christopher D. Rahn obtained his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley in 1992 and is currently a Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Director of the Mechatronics Research Laboratory, and Co-Director of the Battery and Energy Storage Technology Center at The Pennsylvania State University. His research on the modeling, analysis, design, and control of mechatronic systems has resulted in three books, over one hundred and fifty refereed publications, and several patents. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Hosam K. Fathy earned his B.Sc., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees, all in Mechanical Engineering, from the American University in Cairo (1997), Kansas State University (1999), and University of Michigan (2003). His research focuses on the reduced-order modeling and optimal control of energy storage and management systems. He is a 2014 NSF CAREER award recipient.
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Docimo, D. J., Ghanaatpishe, M., Rothenberger, M. J., Rahn, C. D., and Fathy, H. I. (June 1, 2014). "The Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling Challenge." ASME. Mechanical Engineering. June 2014; 136(06): S7–S14. https://doi.org/10.1115/6.2014-Jun-5
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