This article discusses various aspects and uses of hydrokinetics in the turbine industry. Hydrokinetics is a rapidly developing field, where both big companies and start-ups can compete equally in engineering and design. Designs for hydrokinetic devices continue to evolve. The most popular hydrokinetic device is the turbine. As these turbines are installed underwater, which is much denser than air, hydrokinetic turbines provide much more power than wind turbines at relatively low water current speeds. Considerable research and development are being conducted on three aspects of hydrokinetics technology: optimization of the devices to maximize their capture of wave energy; overall electromechanical system design; and development of control approaches to maximize power output under a variety of sea states. In addition to the efforts to optimize hydrokinetics, important research is also dealing with critical aspects of site evaluation, seabed mechanics and engineering, environmental impacts, and regulatory compliance. Research shows that interdisciplinary engineering and environmental analysis is at the forefront of identifying potential environmental impacts of hydrokinetics and mitigating them through engineering design.

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