This article describes various electrochemical programs that could enable advanced vehicles to generate critical gases directly from water. Energy storage solutions using water electrolysis and fuel cell systems are being examined for applications ranging from backup power systems and lighter-than-air vehicles to extraterrestrial bases on the moon and Mars. The basic architecture of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system includes a high-pressure water electrolysis system, a fuel cell, a fluid management and storage system, a thermal management system, and a power management system. For extraterrestrial applications, the system would be used in tandem with a photovoltaic array. Recent studies have focused on oxygen and hydrogen storage pressures of between 1000 and 2000 psi, requiring the development of a high, balanced-pressure water electrolysis cell stack and balance of plant to safely manage these fluids. Fuel cell-powered vehicles hold the promise of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector, provided the hydrogen fuel is produced from a renewable energy source, such as a high-pressure water electrolyzer operating from wind, solar, or nuclear power.

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