Vascular phantoms mimicking human vessels are commonly used to perform in vitro hemodynamic studies for a number of bioengineering applications, such as medical device testing, clinical simulators, and medical imaging research. Simplified geometries are useful to perform parametric studies, but accurate representations of the complexity of the in vivo system are essential in several applications as personalized features have been found to play a crucial role in the management and treatment of many vascular pathologies. Despite numerous studies employing vascular phantoms produced through different manufacturing techniques, an economically viable technique, able to generate large complex patient-specific vascular anatomies, accessible to nonspecialist laboratories, still needs to be identified. In this work, a manufacturing framework to create personalized and complex phantoms with easily accessible and affordable materials and equipment is presented. In particular, three-dimensional (3D) printing with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is employed to create the mold, and lost core casting is performed to create the physical model. The applicability and flexibility of the proposed fabrication protocol is demonstrated through three phantom case studies—an idealized aortic arch, a patient-specific aortic arch, and a patient-specific aortic dissection model. The phantoms were successfully manufactured in a rigid silicone, a compliant silicone, and a rigid epoxy resin, respectively; using two different 3D printers and two casting techniques, without the need of specialist equipment.