The deep inspiration (DI) maneuver entices a great deal of interest because of its ability to temporarily ease the flow of air into the lungs. This salutary effect of a DI is proposed to be mediated, at least partially, by momentarily increasing the operating length of airway smooth muscle (ASM). Concerningly, this premise is largely derived from a growing body of in vitro studies investigating the effect of stretching ASM by different magnitudes on its contractility. The relevance of these in vitro findings remains uncertain, as the real range of strains ASM undergoes in vivo during a DI is somewhat elusive. In order to understand the regulation of ASM contractility by a DI and to infer on its putative contribution to the bronchodilator effect of a DI, it is imperative that in vitro studies incorporate levels of strains that are physiologically relevant. This review summarizes the methods that may be used in vivo in humans to estimate the strain experienced by ASM during a DI from functional residual capacity (FRC) to total lung capacity (TLC). The strengths and limitations of each method, as well as the potential confounders, are also discussed. A rough estimated range of ASM strains is provided for the purpose of guiding future in vitro studies that aim at quantifying the regulatory effect of DI on ASM contractility. However, it is emphasized that, owing to the many limitations and confounders, more studies will be needed to reach conclusive statements.

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