Three-dimensional force perception is critically important in the enhancement of human force perception to minimize brain injuries resulting from excessive forces applied by surgical instruments in robot-assisted brain tumor resection. And surgeons are not responsive enough to interpret tool-tissue interaction forces. In previous studies, various force measurement techniques have been published. In neurosurgical scenarios, there are still some drawbacks to these presented approaches to forces perception. Because of the narrow, and slim configuration of bipolar forceps, three-dimensional contact forces on forceps tips is not easy to be traced in real-time. Five fundamental acts of handling bipolar forceps are poking, opposing, pressing, opening, and closing. The first three acts independently correspond to the axial force of z, x, y. So, in this paper, typical interactions between bipolar forceps and brain tissues have been analyzed. A three-dimensional force perception technique to collect force data on bipolar forceps tips by installing three Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors (FBGs) on each prong of bipolar forceps in real-time is proposed. Experiments using a tele-neurosurgical robot were performed on an in-vitro pig brain. In the experiments, three-dimensional forces were tracked in real-time. It is possible to experience forces at a minimum of 0.01 N. The three-dimensional force perception range is 0-4 N. The calibrating resolution on x, y, and z, is 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 N, separately. According to our observation, the measurement accuracy precision is over 95%.

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