Temperature distribution monitoring in tissue undergoing laser ablation (LA) could be beneficial for improving treatment outcomes. Among several thermometric techniques employed in LA, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors show valuable characteristics, although their sensitivity to strain entails measurement error for patient respiratory movements. Our work describes a solution to overcome this issue by housing an FBG in a surgical needle. The metrological properties of the probes were assessed in terms of thermal sensitivity (0.027 nm °C−1 versus 0.010 nm °C−1 for epoxy liquid encapsulated probe and thermal paste one, respectively) and response time (about 100 ms) and compared with properties of nonencapsulated FBG (sensitivity of 0.010 nm °C−1, response time of 43 ms). The error due to the strain caused by liver movements, simulating a typical respiratory pattern, was assessed: the strain induces a probes output error less than 0.5 °C, which is negligible when compared to the response of nonencapsulated FBG (2.5 °C). The metallic needle entails a measurement error, called artifact, due to direct absorption of the laser radiation. The analysis of the artifact was performed by employing the probes for temperature monitoring on liver undergoing LA. Experiments were performed at two laser powers (i.e., 2 W and 4 W) and at nine distances between the probes and the laser applicator. The artifact decreases with the distance and increases with the power: it exceeds 10 °C at 4 W, when the encapsulated probes are placed at 3.6 mm and 0 deg from the applicator, and it is lower than 1 °C for distance higher than 5 mm and angle higher than 30 deg.
A Needlelike Probe for Temperature Monitoring During Laser Ablation Based on Fiber Bragg Grating: Manufacturing and Characterization
Manuscript received November 19, 2014; final manuscript received April 24, 2015; published online August 6, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Rupak K. Banerjee.
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Polito, D., Arturo Caponero, M., Polimadei, A., Saccomandi, P., Massaroni, C., Silvestri, S., and Schena, E. (August 6, 2015). "A Needlelike Probe for Temperature Monitoring During Laser Ablation Based on Fiber Bragg Grating: Manufacturing and Characterization." ASME. J. Med. Devices. December 2015; 9(4): 041006. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4030624
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