Laparoscopic surgery, or minimally invasive surgery (MIS), is a method used in which a surgeon creates only small incisions where tools, including a camera, are inserted to assist in a procedure. Small incisions like these reduce patient pain, discomfort, recovery time, and risk. On-site robotic systems are developed to aid doctors in many laparoscopic surgical procedures. These systems make for improved movability inside the body and less invasiveness for the patients, lessening even further post procedural pain. With the combination of on-site robotic surgery, efficient video, audio, and data transfer across large distances, telesurgery was born.

Telesurgery, with continuing advances in communication technologies and the availability of greater bandwidth, is likely to increase rapidly in the upcoming decade. Telepresence is the ability of an individual to feel as if they were somewhere else. It provides a way for someone to see, hear, and talk to...

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