Fast paced changes in medical technologies have allowed for once aggressive treatments to be performed with minimally invasive approaches. Within oncology, a large enabler has been ablation catheters, which allows for focal destruction of tissue without the need for invasive surgery. Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), which are the third leading cause of death from cancer worldwide, are significant targets of this technology [1].

Today, less invasive techniques to treat HCC include radiofrequency ablation where an electrode is inserted into the tumor and high frequency electrical current is emitted from the tip which causes heating of nearby tissue. Tissue death occurs by achieving temperatures greater than 55 °C [2]. For highly vascularized tissue, such as the liver, high fluid flows create heat sink, which effectively reduces the efficiency: as heat is rapidly diffused [3,4].

Several strategies have been adopted...

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