More people die from lung cancer each year than any other form of cancer. Over 150,000 lives are lost to the disease each year in the U.S. alone [1]. Early detection is critical in reducing the mortality rate, and despite advances in imaging, biopsy remains the only definitive diagnostic tool. The most common lung biopsy approaches are percutaneous and transoral. Percutaneous biopsy punctures the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lung) in order to reach the suspicious nodule and risks pneumothorax (lung collapse), which is a serious complication and can be deadly for patients with poor baseline lung function. Transoral lung biopsy is preferable due to the fact that the biopsy device never traverses the pleura.

However, current bronchoscopes cannot access the majority of the peripheral lung, due to their large diameter in relation to bronchi diameter. While smaller diameter endoscopes and endoscopelike devices...

References

References
1.
American Cancer Society
,
2014
,
Cancer Facts & Figures
, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2014/
2.
Gilbert
,
H. B.
,
Rucker
,
D. C.
, and
Webster
,
R. J.
,
2013
, “
Concentric Tube Robots: State of the Art and Future Directions
,”
16th International Symposium of Robotics Research, Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics
,
Springer
,
New York
.
3.
Webster
,
R. J.
,
Kim
,
J. S.
,
Cowan
,
N. J.
,
Chirikjian
,
G. S.
, and
Okamura
,
A. M.
,
2006
, “
Nonholonomic Modeling of Needle Steering
,”
Int. J. Rob. Res.
,
25
(
5–6
), pp.
509
525
.10.1177/0278364906065388
4.
Brett
,
P.
,
Parker
,
T.
,
Harrison
,
A.
,
Thomas
,
T.
, and
Carr
,
A.
,
1997
, “
Simulation of Resistance Forces Acting on Surgical Needles
,”
Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part H
,
221
(
335
), pp.
335
347
.http://pih.sagepub.com/content/211/4/335.full.pdf
5.
Alterovitz
,
R.
,
Goldberg
,
K.
,
Pouliot
,
J.
,
Taschereau
,
R.
, and
Hsu
,
I.
,
2003
, “
Needle Insertion and Radioactive Seed Implantation in Human Tissues: Simulation and Sensitivity Analysis
,”
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation
(
ICRA '03
), Taipei, Taiwan, Sept. 14–19, pp.
1793
1799
.10.1109/ROBOT.2003.1241854
6.
Mahvash
,
M.
, and
Dupont
,
P. E.
,
2010
, “
Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion Into a Biological Material
,”
IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.
,
57
(
4
), pp.
934
943
.10.1109/TBME.2009.2036856
You do not currently have access to this content.